Welcome to amber - the home of ambulance service research

NHS Blue and White Logo

amber contains records of published research authored by staff working in NHS ambulance services in England and Scotland. amber is managed by the Library and Knowledge Services for NHS Ambulance Services in England [LKS ASE]. For more information see the About pages or contact LKS ASE.

UPDATE: amber is evolving to include the published output of the Northern Ireland Ambulance Service and Welsh Ambulance Service.  Starting in July 2022 colleagues at Manchester University NHS Trust Library Service will be adding publications from 2006 – to date. 

We are committed to delivering and maintaining a high quality of data.  If you are aware of any inaccuracies in the data on amber, contact us and we will correct it.  If you believe your work should be included in amber and it is currently not there please let us know.

  • Use of specialist paramedic dispatch in emergency ambulance control

    Fell, Simon; Corrie, Ian (2022-04-07)
    Optimising patient care through the delivery of specialist resource allocation at the point of injury improves patient outcomes. As identified by the NHS, high-quality call handling and dispatch of the right response, first time, is critical to these outcomes (NHS, 2015). Aim: This article presents an objective literature review and critical analysis of the evidence base concerning clinical dispatch. This study aims to highlight key differences between the triage and dispatch processes of specialist resources, to establish if the evidence supports the use of one model to manage these resources, and to ascertain best practice. Method: A structured literature review was undertaken and thematic analysis was used to explore the findings of the literature, leading to the establishment of recommendations for best practice in this area. Results: The literature discourages dispatching specialist teams based solely on computeraided dispatch software codes, and recognises that specialist paramedic dispatchers have a better understanding of the clinical and ethical challenges of appropriately dispatching specialist, finite resources. Conclusion: The literature supports the use of clinicians in dispatching specialist resources to best meet the needs of those patients who are critically ill or injured. Abstract published with permission.
  • The introduction of advanced paramedics into primary care in Northern Ireland: a qualitative descriptive study of the experiences of general practitioners

    Muldoon, Damian; Seenan, Chris (2021-12)
    Primary care is dealing with an ever-increasing workload. The causes are multi-factorial but include a decreasing number of General Practitioners (GPs), combined with increased numbers of patients with multiple co-morbidities and an ageing population. As a result of these pressures, nursing and allied health professionals are now working within a growing number of advanced practice roles delivering community-based care. One such example is paramedics taking up advanced roles within General Practice settings in Northern Ireland. What is not known, however, is what GPs' experiences are of these developments. Abstract published with permission.
  • A retrospective cross-sectional analysis of re-contact rates and clinical characteristics in diabetic patients referred by paramedics to a community diabetes service following a hypoglycaemic episode

    BLOOMER, KARL (2021-09)
    A retrospective cross-sectional study of routinely collected data by the Northern Ireland Ambulance Service HSC Trust of individuals referred to a community diabetic service following ambulance attendance and non-conveyance. Data were collected over a 3-month period with ambulance service re-contact and clinical data analysed. Abstract published with permission.
  • Re-contact demographics and clinical characteristics of diabetic patients treated for a hypoglycaemic episode in the pre-hospital environment: a rapid literature review

    BLOOMER, KARL (2019-09)
    Diabetes mellitus has been referred to as an 'epidemic' and the World Health Organization reported 422 million people with the disease in 2014. Hypoglycaemia is common among emergency presentations, yet understanding around the utilisation of emergency medical services (EMS) for this is incomplete.Ambulance service referral pathways for those suitable to be treated in the community have been developed as a means of managing this growing demand. However, there is limited evidence to suggest how they should be constructed or implemented.The aim of this review was to examine patients who re-contacted the health services following EMS non-transport for a hypoglycaemic episode and to determine if risk factors could be identified. Abstract published with permission.

View more