Now showing items 1-20 of 935

    • Urinary tract infection: diagnosis and management for nurses

      Naish, Wendy; Hallam, Matt (2007-02-14)
      Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common health problem, so it is important that nurses in all care settings know how to manage patients with this condition effectively. This article defines UTI, identifying patients who are most at risk and the underlying reasons why. Accurate diagnosis is important in the provision of treatment and the prevention of further complications, some of which can have serious consequences for patients. Inappropriate investigations are expensive, and may result in patients being over-treated. UTI is multifaceted, which makes its management difficult. However, a good understanding of prevention, assessment and management can help nurses to ensure the right treatment is offered. https://search.proquest.com/docview/219852637/abstract/858663895F434BA4PQ/1?accountid=48113. This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ DOI
    • Effect of a centralised transfer service on characteristics of inter-hospital neonatal transfers

      Kempley, S. T.; Baki, Y.; Hayter, G.; Ratnavel, Nandiran; Cavazzoni, E.; Reyes, T. (2007-05)
      To determine the effect of a centralised neonatal transfer service on numbers of neonatal transfers and the time taken for teams to reach the baby. https://fn.bmj.com/content/92/3/F185 This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/adc.2006.106047
    • Intermediate care for older people

      Logan, Pip; Stoner-Hobbs, Valarie; McCloughrey, Helen; Foster, Carol; Fitzsimmons, Dawne; Williams, Jo; Spencer, Pamela; Robertson, Kate; Gladman, John R.F. (2007-06)
      Up to 40 per cent of older people do not go to hospital after calling an emergency ambulance and until recently were not referred on to any other community services. This article describes how a multidisciplinary working group developed and evaluated a protocol to enable older people to be referred to intermediate care services after calling an emergency ambulance. A total of 54 patients were monitored after referral to intermediate care to assess adherence to the protocol and outcomes. https://search.proquest.com/docview/218640918/fulltextPDF/D39007D8FA944159PQ/1?accountid=48113 This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.7748/nop2007.06.19.5.25.c4644
    • ‘Shining a light on the gaps for learning’

      Banerjee, Anita; Mansfield, Amanda (2020-10)
    • Changing paramedic students' perception of people who self-harm

      Ramluggun, Pras; Freeman-May, Andrew; Barody, Gabby; Groom, Nicholas; Townsend, Chloe (2020-10-07)
      Aim: This study aimed to identify whether paramedic students' perceptions of patients who self-harm changed following an educational intervention. Background: Self-harm is a major public health concern with an increasing number of incidents being reported in England. Paramedics are often the first contact for those who self-harm and antipathy to these patients among caregivers, including paramedics, has been reported. Negative attitudes to patients who self-harm from health professionals is a considerable barrier to their care. Education on self-harm for paramedics has been historically inadequate, even though it can potentially improve attitudes and how these practitioners engage with those who self-harm. Method: A pre- and post-survey analysis was undertaken to examine whether any identified unsympathetic perceptions of paramedic students (n=30) towards patients who self-harm would decrease following an educational intervention, using a validated questionnaire measuring attitudes to self-harm. Results: Perceptions of people who self-harm were generally moderately negative prior to the educational intervention, with a significant drop in negative attitudes after it was completed. A survey showed that this drop was also mostly sustained 10 months later. Conclusion: Educational interventions may help to reduce negative perceptions of patients who self-harm in paramedic students. Abstract published with permission.
    • Alcohol/substance use and occupational/post-traumatic stress in paramedics

      Hichisson, Andrew; Corkery, John Martin (2020-10-07)
      Background: Paramedics work in high-pressure environments and experience traumatic events, which contribute to high levels of occupational and post-traumatic stress. Such stress can result in alcohol and substance misuse in other health professionals, but this relationship has not been examined in paramedics. This review is the first exploration of the literature on this. Methods: A systematic literature review was conducted using PRISMA guidelines, with databases searched using terms relevant to paramedics and alcohol/substance use. Studies were analysed using descriptive statistics for quantitative data and thematic analysis for qualitative information. Findings: Eleven studies were identified. Nine studies examined alcohol use; seven examined substance use; five examined both. Alcohol and smoking may be linked to occupational stress. Conclusions: The nature and extent of alcohol and substance use in relation to occupational and post-traumatic stress among paramedics need further investigation to facilitate advice and support. Abstract published with permission.
    • How accurate is the prehospital diagnosis of hyperventilation syndrome?

      Wilson, Caitlin; Harley, Clare; Steels, Stephanie (2020-11-09)
      Background: The literature suggests that hyperventilation syndrome (HVS) should be diagnosed and treated prehospitally. Aim: To determine diagnostic accuracy of HVS by paramedics and emergency medical technicians using hospital doctors' diagnosis as the reference standard. Methods: A retrospective audit was carried out of routine data using linked prehospital and in-hospital patient records of adult patients (≥18 years) transported via emergency ambulance to two emergency departments in the UK from 1 January 2012–31 December 2013. Accuracy was measured using sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (NPV/PPVs) and likelihood ratios (LRs) with 95% confidence intervals. Results: A total of 19 386 records were included in the analysis. Prehospital clinicians had a sensitivity of 88% (95% CI [82–92%]) and a specificity of 99% (95% CI [99–99%]) for diagnosing HVS, with PPV 0.42 (0.37, 0.47), NPV 1.00 (1.00, 1.00), LR+ 75.2 (65.3, 86.5) and LR− 0.12 (0.08, 0.18). Conclusions: Paramedics and emergency medical technicians are able to diagnose HVS prehospitally with almost perfect specificity and good sensitivity. Abstract published with permission.
    • End-of-life care within the paramedic context

      Wilson, Caitlin (2020-11-09)
      Edited by Tania Blackmore (2020), Palliative end of life care for paramedics provides a comprehensive overview of palliative and end-of-life care within the context of paramedic practice. This recently published book is in its first edition and is available in paperback (£29.99) or eBook (£24.99) format. It sits alongside similar publications from the College of Paramedics such as Law and ethics for paramedics and Independent prescribing for paramedics. Some of you may have noticed that these book topics reflect a selection of the paramedic e-Learning modules, which are freely available for College of Paramedic members through the e-Learning for Healthcare Hub website or via My ESR for NHS employees. The subjects covered in the ‘Paramedic – End of Life and Palliative Care’ e-Learning module loosely reflect those covered in this book; however, the book covers everything in much more detail, and includes many references to current supporting evidence, providing the reader with a greater background understanding of palliative care. The team of authors is a well-balanced mixture of academic and clinical health professionals, with three from a paramedic background and three end-of-life care specialists. The front cover of the book indicates that this book is supported by the College of Paramedics, which hints at its incredible relevance for paramedics and emergency ambulance technicians practising in the UK. Sometimes when being taught by specialists outside of the ambulance service, they impart an immense amount of specialist knowledge, yet prehospital clinicians have to decide for themselves how much is actually within their scope of practice and therefore applicable to their clinical role. Although, the editor includes a (very valid and important) disclaimer at the beginning of the book that ‘healthcare professionals should always follow local procedures and be aware of their own scope of practice’, this process of critical appraisal and judgement on applicability is made much easier by the book's close alignment with UK paramedic practice and the frequent references to the JRCALC Clinical Guidelines 2019 (Association of Ambulance Chief Executives (AACE), 2019). In fact, in that way, it is similar to the Emergency birth in the community book that I reviewed in a past issue of the Journal of Paramedic Practice (Wilson, 2019), which was supported by the AACE and JRCALC. The book takes the reader on a logical journey beginning with the broader historical, social and cultural debates about death and dying in chapter 1, followed by the various definitions of palliative care in chapter 2. Chapters 3 and 4 provide an overview of palliative care emergencies and how to recognise them, followed by guidance on symptom management. Subsequently, chapter 5 focuses on softer skills such as communication, while chapter 6 provides an overview of caring for the dying patient, delirium, medication management and discussions surrounding what may constitute a ‘good death’. Chapters 7 and 8 address the topics of ethics and professional resilience, before chapter 9 ties everything together under the title ‘the paramedic as an end of life care specialist’. A clear favourite within this book was chapter 4, which covers symptom management and seemed so applicable that it may join my ever-growing collection of ‘keep-in-helmet-bag’ books. I also really liked the many visuals, such as the image displaying the relative strength of opioids and others illustrating pain pathways and causes of vomiting and nausea. The authors have also included many educational tables, which in chapter 3 provided useful information on manifestations, relevant considerations and treatment for various palliative care emergencies such as neutropenic sepsis, superior vena cava syndrome and terminal haemorrhage. Although it will be impossible for me to remember all of these details, it will be easy to refer to these tables when thinking through differential diagnoses or reflecting on patient encounters. A great learning tool within this book are the case studies included at the end of most chapters. These cases add a practical element to the book and allow the reader to reflect upon what has been discussed in the chapter. However, many of the case studies and associated questions are complex in nature and although they are likely to have more than one right answer, there will definitely be wrong answers. I wonder if, in subsequent editions, the authors could include potential answers or discussions at the end of the book to ensure that readers are following along the right lines. I found the book to be a bit of a slow starter, as the authors use chapters 1 and 2 to introduce the reader to a wide variety of palliative care policies and frameworks in the UK. Although presented in a structured way, it is at times difficult to see how they fit together and which ones apply to paramedics. For those readers finding themselves similarly confused, I would suggest first turning to chapters 3 or 4 and then revisiting the earlier chapters to learn about the broader picture of palliative care. I think working through this book would make a useful exercise for continued professional development (CPD) as part of a paramedic portfolio or even the associate ambulance practitioner programme. In fact, the title, Palliative and end of life care for paramedics may be slightly misleading: this book is by no means solely suitable for qualified paramedics; emergency ambulance staff in other roles such as emergency medical technicians or clinical advisors within the emergency operations centre would definitely benefit from reading this book, although would have to adapt some of the advice to their own scope of practice. Overall, this book is written in simple and easy-to-understand language, provides excellent tips for further reading and cites relevant and up-to-date references throughout—what's not to love? Well, very little to be honest. I have already recommended this book to several colleagues and feel my own care of patients approaching the end of their life has improved since reading this book. I certainly feel more confident and will likely turn back to this book to answer any prehospital palliative care questions I may face in the future. The best way to summarise this book is by expressing my full agreement with the statement on the back cover: ‘it is essential reading for [prehospital clinicians] hoping to better understand the complexities of caring for patients approaching the end of life’. Abstract published with permission.
    • Accuracy of emergency medical dispatchers' subjective ability to identify when higher dispatch levels are warranted over a Medical Priority Dispatch System automated protocol's recommended coding based on paramedic outcome data

      Clawson, Jeff; Olola, Christopher H.O.; Heward, Andy; Scott, Greg; Patterson, Brett (2007-08)
      To establish the accuracy of the emergency medical dispatcher’s (EMD’s) decisions to override the automated Medical Priority Dispatch System (MPDS) logic-based response code recommendations based on at-scene paramedic-applied transport acuity determinations (blue-in) and cardiac arrest (CA) findings. https://emj.bmj.com/content/24/8/560. This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/emj.2007.047928.
    • Effects of international football matches on ambulance call profiles and volumes during the 2006 World Cup

      Deakin, Charles D.; Thompson, Fizz; Gibson, Caroline; Green, Mark (2007-03-13)
      Prompt ambulance attendance is aimed at improving patient care. With finite resources struggling to meet performance targets, unforeseen demand precludes the ability to tailor resources to cope with increased call volumes, and can have a marked detrimental effect on performance and hence patient care. The effects of the 2006 World Cup football matches on call volumes and profiles were analysed to understand how public events can influence demands on the ambulance service. https://emj.bmj.com/content/24/6/405.long This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ DOI: 10.1136/emj.2007.046920
    • Oxford Handbook of Pre-Hospital Care

      Fellows, Bob (2008-10)
      This is a small pocket guide written by a pair of eminent doctors with a clear market for other doctors who want to be more involved in the ‘sexy’ world of pre- and out-of-hospital care. Abstract published with permission.
    • An introduction to CPD for paramedic practice

      Sibson, Lynda (2008-11)
      This article outlines the concept of continuing professional development (CPD) and its application to the paramedic. CPD has long been an aspect of other health care professions, but is relatively new to the paramedic profession. The Health Professions Council (HPC) standards mean that paramedics will have to provide evidence of CPD from August 2009. The standards apply not only to those in clinical practice, but also to those working in research, management or education. CPD can initially appear daunting. However, it can, and should be, an enjoyable aspect of developing yourself and your professional practice. This article therefore aims to suggest some CPD activities for paramedic practice, with reference to some of the HPC guidelines and learning from other health care professionals. Abstract published with permission.
    • Managing the Injury Burden in Nepal

      The Nepal Community Emergency Preparedness Group; Karmacharya, P.C.; Singh, G.K.; Singh, M.P.; Gautam, V.G.; Par, Andrew; Banskota, A.K.; Bajracharya, A.; Shreshtha, A.B.; Mahara, Deepak (2008-10)
    • Can emergency medical service staff predict the disposition of patients they are transporting?

      Clesham, K.; Mason, S.; Gray, J.; Walters, S.; Cooke, V. (2008-10-08)
      Emergency medical service (EMS) staff in the UK routinely transport all emergency responses to the nearest emergency department (ED). Proposed reforms in the ambulance service mean that EMS staff will transport patients not necessarily to the nearest hospital, but to one providing facilities that the patient is judged to require. No previous UK studies have evaluated how accurately EMS staff can predict which transported patients will require admission to hospital. https://emj.bmj.com/content/25/10/691 This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/emj.2007.054924
    • AMPDS categories: are they an appropriate method to select cases for extended role ambulance practitioners?

      Gray, J.T.; Walker, A. (2008-09)
      To examine the correlation between the AMPDS prioritisation category at dispatch and the use of alternative clinical dispatch using data from an emergency care practitioner (ECP) service dispatching on likely clinical need. https://emj.bmj.com/content/25/9/601 This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/emj.2007.056184
    • Airtraq vs standard laryngoscopy by student paramedics and experienced prehospital laryngoscopists managing a model of difficult intubation

      Woollard, Malcolm; Lighton, M; Mannion, W.; Watt, J.; McCrea, C.; Johns, I.; Hamilton, L.; O'Meara, P.; Cotton, C.; smyth, mike (2008-01)
    • An investigation to determine whether evidence exists to support the introduction of paralysis agents into the prehospital environment, to assist endotracheal intubation for patients who sustain head injuries

      Dady, S. (2006-11-27)
      Head injuries are associated with 50% of all deaths due to trauma, about 5000 deaths annually. In traumatic injury, the brain is exposed to two insults: the initial trauma and the second insult during the body’s response. Prevention of this secondary cerebral insult may improve outcome. Intubation facilitated by rapid sequence induction (RSI) ensures appropriate ventilation, reducing the secondary insult by managing arterial CO2 levels. The existing literature indicates that prehospital RSI does not influence the outcome in patients with multiple trauma, yet fails to examine the effect of RSI and intubation on patient recovery from isolated head injury (IHI). https://emj.bmj.com/content/23/12/e68. This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/emj.2006.041574
    • Blurring boundaries

      Gregory, Pete; Mursell, Ian (2006-12)