Now showing items 1-20 of 1634

    • A vision for the NHS Ambulance Service in co-designing urgent and emergency care provision

      Association of Ambulance Chief Executives: AACE; NHS Providers; NHS Confederation (2024-03)
    • Navigating the breadth and depth of primary care

      Romano, Vincent (2024-03-02)
      This book states that it is aimed at both paramedics who are new to the world of primary care and those who are already working within a primary care environment. The authors clearly have a wealth of experience in primary care and the prehospital setting, which are equally important when writing about paramedic care in the primary care setting. Alongside the three authors, there are no less than 19 contributors, again representing some crucial clinical areas such as midwifery, end-of-life care, education, and safeguarding. Abstract published with permission
    • Baptism of fire

      Sofield, Katy (2024-03-02)
      Having spent 5 weeks on operational placement, Katy Sofield describes her ‘baptism of fire’. Abstract published with permission.
    • Can the clinical frailty scale predict futility in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest?

      Ash, Michael; Smith, Neil; Doughlin, Troy (2024-03-02)
      Background: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is considered an essential intervention in unanticipated cardiac arrest, but in the out-of hospital setting it is often the default treatment for many patients dying of chronic and incurable disease who experience this. The Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS) can predict an individual’s vulnerability to adverse health outcomes and might be a useful tool in prognostication in the prehospital setting. Aims: The primary aim was to assess if the CFS can be used for prognostication in cardiac arrest and whether UK paramedics would be able to use the CFS in the context of an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Methods: A rapid review of the literature was undertaken to identify research relating to frailty’s influence on cardiac arrest outcomes. Five primary research articles were identified and were included. Findings: All the primary research focused on in-hospital cardiac arrest and demonstrated that an higher clinical frailty score was associated with increased mortality following cardiac arrest, with a significant reduction in survival at CFS ≥6. Conclusion: Research could assess whether these findings would be replicated in the out-of-hospital cardiac arrest context and whether paramedics could use the CFS to aid in prognostication in this situation. Abstract published with permission.
    • Expedited transfer to a cardiac arrest centre for non-ST-elevation out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (ARREST): a UK prospective, multicentre, parallel, randomised clinical trial

      Patterson, Tiffany; Perkins, Gavin; Perkins, Alexander; Clayton, Tim; Evans, Richard; Dodd, Matthew; Robertson, Steven; Wilson, Karen; Mellett-Smith, Adam; Fothergill, Rachael; et al. (2023-10-14)
    • Four pillars to stand on

      Ford, Derek (2023)
      Derek Ford reflects on the importance of the four pillars of advanced practice. Abstract published with permission.
    • Consensus on acute behavioural disturbance in the UK: a multidisciplinary modified Delphi study to determine what it is and how it should be managed

      Humphries, Christopher; kelly, Anthony; Sadik, Aws; Walker, Alison; Smith, Jason (2023-09-22)
      Background Acute behavioural disturbance (ABD) is a term used in law enforcement and healthcare, but there is a lack of clarity regarding its meaning. Common language should be used across staff groups to support the identification, prioritisation and delivery of care to this group of patients. The terminology currently used is inconsistent and confusing. This study aimed to reach a consensus on the criteria for identification and management of ABD, and to agree when other care pathways or guidelines might be more appropriately used. Methods A modified Delphi study with participation from stakeholder organisation representatives was conducted in January–April 2023 online. In round 1, statements were generated by participants in response to broad questions. Participants then rated their level of agreement with statements in subsequent rounds, with statements achieving a consensus removed for inclusion in the final derived consensus statement. Non-consensus statement responses were assessed for stability. Results Of 430 unique statements presented for rating, 266 achieved a consensus among 30 participants representing eight stakeholder organisations. A derived consensus statement was generated from these statements. The median group response to statements which failed to achieve a consensus was reliable (Krippendorff’s alpha=0·67). Conclusions There is a consensus across stakeholder organisations that ABD is not a separate entity to agitation, and guidance should instead be altered to address the full range of presentations of agitation. While the features of concern in this severely agitated group of patients can be described, the advice for recognition may vary depending on staff group. Criteria for recognition are provided and potential new terminology is described. https://emj.bmj.com/content/41/1/4 This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/
    • Novel moving, handling and extraction simulation for students in a soft play area

      McKenzie, John W. B.; Horne, Emma; Smith, Benjamin; Tapson, Ella R.; Whitley, Gregory (2023)
      Background: Emergency medical services often have to extricate patients from their location and take them to an ambulance. High-quality training is required to ensure patient and staff safety during moving, handling and extrication manoeuvres. This study aimed to determine student satisfaction and self-confidence regarding what they had learnt after a novel moving, handling and extrication simulation exercise in a children's soft play area. Methods: A mixed-methods cross-sectional survey was adopted, using the validated Student Satisfaction and Self-Confidence in Learning survey tool. Qualitative data were collected from an open question for additional comments. Student paramedics and student emergency medical technicians from one higher education institution completed four time-limited scenarios, each of which involved moving an immobile patient away from their environment. Descriptive statistics were determined for the participant characteristics and survey responses. Thematic analysis was performed on the qualitative data. Results: The student participants were aged 18–47 years and the majority were women. They were satisfied with both their learning and their self-confidence in what they had learnt after the simulation event, and felt their communication and teamwork skills had improved. They enjoyed the event more than classroom-based simulation. While they felt the simulation was realistic, suggestions were made to make it more so. Conclusion: Use of a children's soft play area for a moving, handling and extrication simulation provided student satisfaction and self-confidence in learning. Abstract published with permission.
    • Displaced risk. Keeping mothers and babies safe: a UK ambulance service lens

      heys, Stephanie; Main, Camella; Humphreys, Aimee; Torrance, Rachael (2023-09-01)
    • Association of socioeconomic status with 30-day survival following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in Scotland, 2011-2020

      Bijman, Laura A.E.; Chamberlain, Rosemary C.; Clegg, Gareth; Kent, Andrew; Halbesma, Nynke (2023-09-19)
    • Could diabetes prevention programmes result in the widening of sociodemographic inequalities in type 2 diabetes? Comparison of survey and administrative data for England

      Chatzi, Georgia; Whittaker, William; Chandola, Tarani; Mason, Thomas; Soiland-Reyes, Claudia; Sutton, Matt; Bower, Peter (2023-09)
      Background The NHS Diabetes Prevention Programme (DPP) in England is a behavioural intervention for preventing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among people with non-diabetic hyperglycaemia (NDH). How this programme affects inequalities by age, sex, limiting illnesses or disability, ethnicity or deprivation is not known. Methods We used multinomial and binary logistic regression models to compare whether the population with NDH at different stages of the programme are representative of the population with NDH: stages include (1) prevalence of NDH (using survey data from UK Household Longitudinal Study (n=794) and Health Survey for England (n=1383)); (2) identification in primary care and offer of programme (using administrative data from the National Diabetes Audit (n=1 267 350)) and (3) programme participation (using programme provider records (n=98 024)). Results Predicted probabilities drawn from the regressions with demographics as each outcome and dataset identifier as predictors showed that younger adults (aged under 40) (4% of the population with NDH (95% CI 2.4% to 6.5%)) and older adults (aged 80 and above) (12% (95% CI 9.5% to 14.2%)) were slightly under-represented among programme participants (2% (95% CI 1.8% to 2.2%) and 8% (95% CI 7.8% to 8.2%) of programme participants, respectively). People living in deprived areas were under-represented in eight sessions (14% (95% CI 13.7% to 14.4%) vs 20% (95% CI 16.4% to 23.6%) in the general population). Ethnic minorities were over-represented among offers (35% (95% CI 35.1% to 35.6%) vs 13% (95% CI 9.1% to 16.4%) in general population), though the proportion dropped at the programme completion stage (19% (95% CI 18.5% to 19.5%)). Conclusion The DPP has the potential to reduce ethnic inequalities, but may widen socioeconomic, age and limiting illness or disability-related inequalities in T2DM. While ethnic minority groups are over-represented at the identification and offer stages, efforts are required to support completion of the programme. Programme providers should target under-represented groups to ensure equitable access and narrow inequalities in T2DM. https://jech.bmj.com/content/77/9/565 This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/
    • Sudden-onset disaster mass-casualty incident response: a modified delphi study on triage, prehospital life support, and processes

      Cuthbertson, Joe; Weinstein, Eric; Franc, Jeffrey Michael; Jones, Peter; Lamine, Hamdi; Magalini, Sabina; Gui, Daniele; Lennquist, Kristina; Marzi, Federica; Borrello, Alessandro; et al. (2023-09-07)
    • Prehospital early warning scores for adults with suspected sepsis: retrospective diagnostic cohort study

      Goodacre, Steve; Sutton, Laura; Thomas, Ben; Hawksworth, Olivia; Iftikhar, Khurram; Croft, Susan; Fuller, Gordon; Waterhouse, Simon; Hind, Daniel; Bradburn, Mike; et al. (2023-11)
      Background Ambulance services need to identify and prioritise patients with sepsis for early hospital assessment. We aimed to determine the accuracy of early warning scores alongside paramedic diagnostic impression to identify sepsis that required urgent treatment. Methods We undertook a retrospective diagnostic cohort study involving adult emergency medical cases transported to Sheffield Teaching Hospitals ED by Yorkshire Ambulance Service in 2019. We used routine ambulance service data to calculate 21 early warning scores and categorise paramedic diagnostic impressions as sepsis, infection, non-specific presentation or other presentation. We linked cases to hospital records and identified those meeting the sepsis-3 definition who received urgent hospital treatment for sepsis (reference standard). Analysis determined the accuracy of strategies that combined early warning scores at varying thresholds for positivity with paramedic diagnostic impression. Results We linked 12 870/24 955 (51.6%) cases and identified 348/12 870 (2.7%) with a positive reference standard. None of the strategies provided sensitivity greater than 0.80 with positive predictive value greater than 0.15. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the National Early Warning Score, version 2 (NEWS2) applied to patients with a diagnostic impression of sepsis or infection was 0.756 (95% CI 0.729, 0.783). No other early warning score provided clearly superior accuracy to NEWS2. Paramedic impression of sepsis or infection had sensitivity of 0.572 (0.519, 0.623) and positive predictive value of 0.156 (0.137, 0.176). NEWS2 thresholds of >4, >6 and >8 applied to patients with a diagnostic impression of sepsis or infection, respectively, provided sensitivities and positive predictive values of 0.522 (0.469, 0.574) and 0.216 (0.189, 0.245), 0.447 (0.395, 0.499) and 0.274 (0.239, 0.313), and 0.314 (0.268, 0.365) and 0.333 (0.284, 0.386). Conclusion No strategy is ideal but using NEWS2 alongside paramedic diagnostic impression of infection or sepsis could identify one-third to half of sepsis cases without prioritising unmanageable numbers. No other score provided clearly superior accuracy to NEWS2. https://emj.bmj.com/content/40/11/768 This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/
    • The space in between

      Cochrane, Alice (2024-02-02)
      In her first column, Alice Cochrane navigates the space in between university and practice Abstract published with permission.
    • Factors that influence child conveyance decisions made by prehospital clinicians

      Blake-Barnard, Alex; Whitley, Gregory (2024-02-02)
      Abstract Introduction: The decision to convey children to emergency departments is complex. This study aimed to identify barriers and enablers to making appropriate decisions, along with areas of disparity in this decision-making process by ambulance clinicians. Methods: A rapid evidence review was conducted. MEDLINE, CINAHL and PubMed were searched from 2012 to July 2023. Critical appraisal and thematic synthesis were performed. Results: Three studies were identified, which highlights the lack of research in this area. Five themes were identified: provision of care; equipment and protocols; exposure, experience and confidence; emotional and social circumstances; and education or skill set. Findings: Enhanced paediatric education is required before and after registration to ensure appropriate conveyance and address clinicians' lack of exposure, experience and confidence. Protocols and guidelines should be drawn up to support decision-making for lower-acuity child patients. Specialist paediatric roles are required in ambulance services to support clinicians and provide advanced patient-centred care. Conclusions: The findings of this review provide a basis for discussion and clinical practice improvement. Research to determine the clinical and cost effectiveness of implementing prehospital specialist paediatric roles is required. Abstract published with permission
    • Which patients receive a prealert? Analysis of linked data in three ambulance services

      Sampson, Fiona; Pilbery, Richard; Herbert, Esther; Bell, Fiona; Rosser, Andy; Spaight, Rob; Goodacre, Steve; Pountney, Andy; Millins, Mark (2023)
    • Mass casualty triage : using virtual reality in hazardous area response teams training

      Thompson, Steven (2023-09-12)
      Background: In recent years, virtual reality (VR) has become a pedagogic resource that complements the general training health professionals receive. VR could revolutionise hazardous area response team (HART) mass casualty incident (MCI) triage training. Aims: The study aimed to establish whether VR could improve the overall effectiveness of HART triage training and increase practitioner confidence and preparedness for an MCI. Methods: The author co-developed a VR marauding terrorist attack (MTA) triage scenario at a football stadium. The software was loaded onto Oculus Quest 2 VR headsets. HART paramedic participants completed an online survey before the exercise, which focused on demographics and experience. They were then familiarised with the VR equipment, which incorporated a tutorial on patient interaction. This was followed by a VR MTA exercise with 15 casualties, after which they completed an online survey to gauge their opinions. Results: All 36 HART paramedics recruited agreed VR would improve the effectiveness of HART paramedic training for mass casualty triage. Furthermore, 30 (83%) agreed that VR was more effective than the sand manikins currently used in training. Following the VR scenario, 31 (86%) of participants reported increased confidence in responding to an MCI and carrying out mass casualty triage. Conclusion: VR can improve the effectiveness of the HART triage training and may increase HART paramedic confidence in responding to an MCI and carrying out primary triage. Further studies with larger samples could determine if the results from this study can be generalisable across all frontline paramedic clinicians. Additionally, participant accuracy and time on task data should be evaluated.Background: In recent years, virtual reality (VR) has become a pedagogic resource that complements the general training health professionals receive. VR could revolutionise hazardous area response team (HART) mass casualty incident (MCI) triage training. Aims: The study aimed to establish whether VR could improve the overall effectiveness of HART triage training and increase practitioner confidence and preparedness for an MCI. Methods: The author co-developed a VR marauding terrorist attack (MTA) triage scenario at a football stadium. The software was loaded onto Oculus Quest 2 VR headsets. HART paramedic participants completed an online survey before the exercise, which focused on demographics and experience. They were then familiarised with the VR equipment, which incorporated a tutorial on patient interaction. This was followed by a VR MTA exercise with 15 casualties, after which they completed an online survey to gauge their opinions. Results: All 36 HART paramedics recruited agreed VR would improve the effectiveness of HART paramedic training for mass casualty triage. Furthermore, 30 (83%) agreed that VR was more effective than the sand manikins currently used in training. Following the VR scenario, 31 (86%) of participants reported increased confidence in responding to an MCI and carrying out mass casualty triage. Conclusion: VR can improve the effectiveness of the HART triage training and may increase HART paramedic confidence in responding to an MCI and carrying out primary triage. Further studies with larger samples could determine if the results from this study can be generalisable across all frontline paramedic clinicians. Additionally, participant accuracy and time on task data should be evaluated.