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dc.contributor.authorFreeman, Samuel
dc.contributor.authorDeakin, Charles D.
dc.contributor.authorNelson, Magnus J.
dc.contributor.authorBootland, Duncan
dc.date.accessioned2019-07-24T08:37:29Z
dc.date.available2019-07-24T08:37:29Z
dc.date.issued2018-11
dc.identifier.citationFreeman, S., et al, 2018. Managing accidental hypothermia: a UK-wide survey of prehospital and search and rescue providers. Emergency medicine journal : EMJ, 35 (11), 652-656.en_US
dc.identifier.issn1472-0213
dc.identifier.issn1472-0205
dc.identifier.doi10.1136/emermed-2017-207178
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12417/83
dc.description.abstractAim The management of hypothermic casualties is a challenge faced by all prehospital and search and rescue (SAR) teams. It is not known how the practice of these diverse teams compare. The aim of this study was to review prehospital hypothermia management across a wide range of SAR providers in the UK. Methods A survey of ground ambulances (GAs), air ambulances (AAs), mountain rescue teams (MRTs, including Ministry of Defence), lowland rescue teams (LRTs), cave rescue teams (CRTs), and lifeboats and lifeguard organisations (LLOs) across the UK was conducted between May and November 2017. In total, 189 teams were contacted. Questions investigated packaging methods, temperature measurement and protocols for managing hypothermic casualties. Results Response rate was 59%, comprising 112 teams from a wide range of organisations. Heavyweight (>3 kg) casualty bags were used by all CRTs, 81% of MRTs, 29% of LRTs, 18% of AAs and 8% of LLOs. Specially designed lightweight (<0.5 kg) blankets or wraps were used by 93% of LRTs, 85% of LLOs, 82% of GAs, 71% of AAs and 50% of MRTs. Bubble wrap was used mainly by AAs, with 35% of AAs reporting its use. Overall, 94% of packaging methods incorporated both insulating and vapour-tight layers. Active warming by heated pads or blankets was used by 65% of AAs, 60% of CRTs, 54% of MRTs, 29% of LRTs and 9% of GAs, with no LLO use. Temperature measurement was reported by all AAs and GAs, 93% of LRTs, 80% of CRTs, 75% of MRTs and 31% of LLOs. The favoured anatomical site for temperature measurement was tympanic. Protocols for packaging hypothermic casualties were reported by 73% of services. Conclusions This survey describes current practice in prehospital hypothermia management, comparing the various methods used by different teams, and provides a basis to direct further education and research. https://emj.bmj.com/content/35/11/652.long This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/emermed-2017-207178
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.subjectEmergency Medical Servicesen_US
dc.subjectBody Temperatureen_US
dc.subjectHypothermiaen_US
dc.subjectMedical Errorsen_US
dc.subjectAmbulancesen_US
dc.titleManaging accidental hypothermia: a UK-wide survey of prehospital and search and rescue providersen_US
dc.typeJournal Article/Review
dc.source.journaltitleEmergency Medicine Journalen_US
dcterms.dateAccepted2019-07-03
rioxxterms.versionNAen_US
rioxxterms.versionofrecordhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1136/emermed-2017-207178en_US
rioxxterms.licenseref.urihttp://www.rioxx.net/licenses/all-rights-reserveden_US
rioxxterms.licenseref.startdate2019-07-03
refterms.panelUnspecifieden_US
refterms.dateFirstOnline2018-07
html.description.abstractAim The management of hypothermic casualties is a challenge faced by all prehospital and search and rescue (SAR) teams. It is not known how the practice of these diverse teams compare. The aim of this study was to review prehospital hypothermia management across a wide range of SAR providers in the UK. Methods A survey of ground ambulances (GAs), air ambulances (AAs), mountain rescue teams (MRTs, including Ministry of Defence), lowland rescue teams (LRTs), cave rescue teams (CRTs), and lifeboats and lifeguard organisations (LLOs) across the UK was conducted between May and November 2017. In total, 189 teams were contacted. Questions investigated packaging methods, temperature measurement and protocols for managing hypothermic casualties. Results Response rate was 59%, comprising 112 teams from a wide range of organisations. Heavyweight (>3 kg) casualty bags were used by all CRTs, 81% of MRTs, 29% of LRTs, 18% of AAs and 8% of LLOs. Specially designed lightweight (<0.5 kg) blankets or wraps were used by 93% of LRTs, 85% of LLOs, 82% of GAs, 71% of AAs and 50% of MRTs. Bubble wrap was used mainly by AAs, with 35% of AAs reporting its use. Overall, 94% of packaging methods incorporated both insulating and vapour-tight layers. Active warming by heated pads or blankets was used by 65% of AAs, 60% of CRTs, 54% of MRTs, 29% of LRTs and 9% of GAs, with no LLO use. Temperature measurement was reported by all AAs and GAs, 93% of LRTs, 80% of CRTs, 75% of MRTs and 31% of LLOs. The favoured anatomical site for temperature measurement was tympanic. Protocols for packaging hypothermic casualties were reported by 73% of services. Conclusions This survey describes current practice in prehospital hypothermia management, comparing the various methods used by different teams, and provides a basis to direct further education and research. https://emj.bmj.com/content/35/11/652.long This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/emermed-2017-207178en_US


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