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dc.contributor.authorThornes, John Edward
dc.contributor.authorFisher, Paul Anthony
dc.contributor.authorRayment-Bishop, Tracy
dc.contributor.authorSmith, Christopher
dc.date.accessioned2020-01-04T08:05:50Z
dc.date.available2020-01-04T08:05:50Z
dc.date.issued2014-03
dc.identifier.citationThornes, J.E. et al, 2014. Ambulance call-outs and response times in Birmingham and the impact of extreme weather and climate change. Emergency Medicine Journal : EMJ, 31 (3), 220-228.en_US
dc.identifier.issn1472-0205
dc.identifier.issn1472-0213
dc.identifier.doi10.1136/emermed-2012-201817
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12417/487
dc.description.abstractAlthough there has been some research on the impact of extreme weather on the number of ambulance call-out incidents, especially heat waves, there has been very little research on the impact of cold weather on ambulance call-outs and response times. In the UK, there is a target response rate of 75% of life threatening incidents (Category A) that must be responded to within 8 min. This paper compares daily air temperature data with ambulance call-out data for Birmingham over a 5-year period (2007–2011). A significant relationship between extreme weather and increased ambulance callout and response times can clearly be shown. Both hot and cold weather have a negative impact on response times. During the heat wave of August 2003, the number of ambulance call-outs increased by up to a third. In December 2010 (the coldest December for more than 100 years), the response rate fell below 50% for 3 days in a row (18 December–20 December 2010) with a mean response time of 15 min. For every reduction of air temperature by 1°C there was a reduction of 1.3% in performance. Improved weather forecasting and the take up of adaptation measures, such as the use of winter tyres, are suggested for consideration as management tools to improve ambulance response resilience during extreme weather. Also it is suggested that ambulance response times could be used as part of the syndromic surveillance system at the Health Protection Agency. https://emj.bmj.com/content/emermed/31/3/220.full.pdf This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/emermed-2012-201817
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.subjectEmergency Medical Servicesen_US
dc.subjectTime Factorsen_US
dc.subjectTime-to-Treatmenten_US
dc.subjectClimate Changeen_US
dc.subjectExtreme Weatheren_US
dc.titleAmbulance call-outs and response times in Birmingham and the impact of extreme weather and climate changeen_US
dc.typeJournal Article/Review
dc.source.journaltitleEmergency Medicine Journalen_US
dcterms.dateAccepted2019-11-19
rioxxterms.versionNAen_US
rioxxterms.licenseref.urihttp://www.rioxx.net/licenses/all-rights-reserveden_US
rioxxterms.licenseref.startdate2019-11-19
refterms.panelUnspecifieden_US
refterms.dateFirstOnline2014-02
html.description.abstractAlthough there has been some research on the impact of extreme weather on the number of ambulance call-out incidents, especially heat waves, there has been very little research on the impact of cold weather on ambulance call-outs and response times. In the UK, there is a target response rate of 75% of life threatening incidents (Category A) that must be responded to within 8 min. This paper compares daily air temperature data with ambulance call-out data for Birmingham over a 5-year period (2007–2011). A significant relationship between extreme weather and increased ambulance callout and response times can clearly be shown. Both hot and cold weather have a negative impact on response times. During the heat wave of August 2003, the number of ambulance call-outs increased by up to a third. In December 2010 (the coldest December for more than 100 years), the response rate fell below 50% for 3 days in a row (18 December–20 December 2010) with a mean response time of 15 min. For every reduction of air temperature by 1°C there was a reduction of 1.3% in performance. Improved weather forecasting and the take up of adaptation measures, such as the use of winter tyres, are suggested for consideration as management tools to improve ambulance response resilience during extreme weather. Also it is suggested that ambulance response times could be used as part of the syndromic surveillance system at the Health Protection Agency. https://emj.bmj.com/content/emermed/31/3/220.full.pdf This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/emermed-2012-201817en_US


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