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dc.contributor.authorWindle, Karen
dc.contributor.authorSiriwardena, Aloysius Niroshan
dc.contributor.authorBarot, Mukesh
dc.contributor.authorEssam, Nadya
dc.contributor.authorJohnson, Mark
dc.contributor.authorKai, Joe
dc.contributor.authorOrtega, Marishona
dc.date.accessioned2019-11-06T20:48:16Z
dc.date.available2019-11-06T20:48:16Z
dc.date.issued2015-05
dc.identifier.citationWindle, K. et al, 2015. Barriers and facilitators for people in BME groups accessing pre-hospital care and causes and consequences of any differences in delivery: systematic review and narrative synthesis. Emergency Medicine Journal : EMJ, 32 (5), e1-e2.en_US
dc.identifier.issn1472-0205
dc.identifier.issn1472-0213
dc.identifier.doi10.1136/emermed-2015-204880.3
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12417/447
dc.description.abstractIntroduction Research addressing inequalities has focused predominantly on primary and community care; few initiatives relate to the pre-hospital environment. We aimed to identify in the literature barriers or facilitators experienced by patients from BME communities in accessing pre-hospital care and to explore the causes and consequences of any differences in delivery. Methods We conducted a systematic literature review and narrative synthesis. Electronic and journal hand searches from 2003 through 2013 identi fied relevant evaluative studies (systematic reviews, randomised controlled trials, quasi-experimental, case and observational studies). A researcher extracted data to determine characteristics, results and quality, each checked by a second reviewer. The main outcome measures were delays in patient calls, mortality rates and 30-days survival post discharge. Results Eighteen studies met criteria for the review: two concerned services in England and Wales and 15 were United States based. Reported barriers to accessing care were generic (and wellknown) given the heterogeneity of BME groups: difficulties in communication where English was the patient ’s second language; new migrants ’ lack of knowledge of the health care system leading to inappropriate emergency calls; and cultural assumptions among clinical staff resulting in inappropriate diagnoses and treatment. There were limited reported facilitators to improvement, such as the need for translation services and staff education, but the latter were poorly described or developed. Where outcomes were discussed, there was evidence for race-related disparity in mortality and survival rates. This could re flect differences in condition severity, delays between onset and initiation of calls, or the scope of response and assistance. Conclusion The paucity of literature and difficulties of transferring findings from US to UK context identified an important research gap. Further studies should be undertaken to investigate UK differences in prehospital care and outcomes for BME groups, followed by qualitative approaches to understand barriers and enablers to equitable access. https://emj.bmj.com/content/emermed/32/5/e1.3.full.pdf This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/emermed-2015-204880.3
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.subjectEmergency Medical Servicesen_US
dc.subjectBMEen_US
dc.subjectPre-hospitalen_US
dc.subjectEqualityen_US
dc.subjectEthnic Groupsen_US
dc.titleBarriers and facilitators for people in BME groups accessing pre-hospital care and causes and consequences of any differences in delivery: systematic review and narrative synthesisen_US
dc.source.journaltitleEmergency Medicine Journal : EMJen_US
dcterms.dateAccepted2019-09-19
rioxxterms.versionNAen_US
rioxxterms.licenseref.urihttp://www.rioxx.net/licenses/all-rights-reserveden_US
rioxxterms.licenseref.startdate2019-09-19
rioxxterms.typeConference Paper/Proceeding/Abstracten_US
refterms.panelUnspecifieden_US
refterms.dateFirstOnline2015-05
html.description.abstractIntroduction Research addressing inequalities has focused predominantly on primary and community care; few initiatives relate to the pre-hospital environment. We aimed to identify in the literature barriers or facilitators experienced by patients from BME communities in accessing pre-hospital care and to explore the causes and consequences of any differences in delivery. Methods We conducted a systematic literature review and narrative synthesis. Electronic and journal hand searches from 2003 through 2013 identi fied relevant evaluative studies (systematic reviews, randomised controlled trials, quasi-experimental, case and observational studies). A researcher extracted data to determine characteristics, results and quality, each checked by a second reviewer. The main outcome measures were delays in patient calls, mortality rates and 30-days survival post discharge. Results Eighteen studies met criteria for the review: two concerned services in England and Wales and 15 were United States based. Reported barriers to accessing care were generic (and wellknown) given the heterogeneity of BME groups: difficulties in communication where English was the patient ’s second language; new migrants ’ lack of knowledge of the health care system leading to inappropriate emergency calls; and cultural assumptions among clinical staff resulting in inappropriate diagnoses and treatment. There were limited reported facilitators to improvement, such as the need for translation services and staff education, but the latter were poorly described or developed. Where outcomes were discussed, there was evidence for race-related disparity in mortality and survival rates. This could re flect differences in condition severity, delays between onset and initiation of calls, or the scope of response and assistance. Conclusion The paucity of literature and difficulties of transferring findings from US to UK context identified an important research gap. Further studies should be undertaken to investigate UK differences in prehospital care and outcomes for BME groups, followed by qualitative approaches to understand barriers and enablers to equitable access. https://emj.bmj.com/content/emermed/32/5/e1.3.full.pdf This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/emermed-2015-204880.3en_US


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