• Addressing the challenges of paramedic recruitment and engagement in AIRWAYS-2

      Pilbery, Richard; Green, Jonathan; Hall, Helen; Whitley, Gregory (2016-09)
      AIRWAYS-2 is an NIHR-funded study to determine the best initial approach to advanced airway management during out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Four NHS ambulance trusts are taking part in AIRWAYS-2: East Midlands, South Western, Yorkshire and East of England. One of the key challenges has been the need to recruit approximately 1300 study paramedics for the trial. The three main challenges in engaging and recruiting paramedics to participate in AIRWAYS-2 have been: ▸ Concerns relating to the potential results of the trial and what this will mean for the continuation of intubation for paramedics ▸ Concerns relating to the restriction on paramedic choice of advanced airway in OHCA and potential skill erosion ▸ Provision of training over large geographical areas at a time when morale is low and many ambulance trusts have recruitment and retention issues. How have these challenges been overcome? ▸ Communication: Identifying the most appropriate communication methods in each Trust e.g. face to face, email, internal trust operational updates ▸ Delivery of key messages: Emphasising why the trial is important and needed, and that its goal is not to remove intubation from paramedic practice. Obtaining the engagement of senior operational management to allay fears over impacts on service performance ▸ Valuing study paramedics: Paying clinicians overtime to attend training sessions, which contributes to their own continuing professional development ▸ Equity and opportunity: Delivery of multiple training sessions throughout each of the four ambulance trusts. Key achievements By November 2015, research paramedics had delivered nearly 350 training sessions and recruited in excess of 1300 paramedics to AIRWAYS-2. Conclusion The research paramedics leading AIRWAYS-2 have collaboratively, and successfully, overcome the main challenges relating to recruiting and engaging the paramedics in their Trusts. This should contribute to achieving the target patient sample size for the trial. https://emj.bmj.com/content/emermed/33/9/e12.1.full.pdf This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/emermed-2016-206139.38
    • Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation: Impact of training initiatives

      Brown, Terry P.; Booth, Scott; Lockey, Andrew S.; Askew, Sara; Hawkes, Claire A.; Fothergill, Rachael; Black, Sarah; Pocock, Helen; Gunson, Imogen; Soar, Jasmeet; et al. (2018-09)
    • Identification of characteristics of neighbourhoods with high incidence of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and low bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation rates

      Brown, Terry P.; Hawkes, Claire A.; Booth, Scott; Fothergill, Rachael; Black, Sara; Bichmann, Anna; Pocock, Helen; Soar, Jasmeet; Mark, Julian; Benger, Jonathan; et al. (2017-09)
    • Improving post-resuscitation care after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

      Fisher, Ruth (2020-01)
      Abstract published with permission. Introduction: The average rate of survival following an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in the UK was 7–8% at the start of 2019. An estimated 60 000 OHCAs are attended by UK ambulance services annually and, despite developments in prehospital and post-resuscitation care, there are significant variations in survival between regions and countries. Aims: This study aims to identify the potential for care pathways, evaluate UK practices and review the evidence for direct referral of OHCA patients to dedicated cardiac arrest centres. Methods: Evidence was gathered from 20 articles identified through a systematic search of articles related to OHCA and post-resuscitation care, as well as from NHS England in relation to performance and outcomes. Results: Between April 2018 and January 2019, 30.6% of patients experiencing an OHCA had a recorded ROSC (return of spontaneous circulation), and 10.2% survived. However, the 58.7% compliance with the post-ROSC care bundle by ambulance services suggests variations in the delivery of post-resuscitation care. At present, UK ambulance services stabilise and transfer OHCA patients with ROSC to the nearest emergency department, which may not provide specialist services. Holland and Norway report survival rates of 21% and 25% respectively, and operate a centralised approach to post-resuscitation care through designated cardiac arrest centres, which provide specialist care that helps to improve the likelihood of survival. While no randomised controlled trials have been carried out in relation to cardiac arrest centres, it is recognised that the quality of care in the post-resuscitation phase is important, as this is when the highest proportion of deaths occur. Conclusion: Further research into specific care pathways and centralised care should be carried out, and an OHCA postresuscitation care pathway should be developed to improve the delivery of care and survival.
    • Relationship between hospital characteristics and survival outcomes in out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients treated and transported by Yorkshire Ambulance Service (YAS)

      Platt, Anthony (2019-09-24)
      Background There is mounting evidence that post resuscitation care, should include early angiography and primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) in OHCA where a cardiac cause is suspected. In Yorkshire, the ambulance service can transport patients with a return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), directly to a regional PPCI unit, if their ECG shows ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and the PPCI units accept. The aim of this study was to evaluate transport decisions, hospital characteristics and outcome in the form of 30 day survival rates of post-ROSC patients with presumed cardiac aetiology. Methods OHCA patient care records (PCRs) between January and July 2017 were reviewed. Patients were eligible for inclusion if they were: an adult non-traumatic OHCA: achieved ROSC on scene, and were transported to hospital. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data. Results 478 patients met the inclusion criteria. 361/478 (75.6%) patients had an ECG recorded, with 149/361 (41.3%) documented cases of STEMI and 88/149 (59.1%) referred to a PPCI unit. 40/88 (45.5%) of referrals made were accepted by PPCI. Patients taken directly to PPCI were most likely to survive to 30 days (25/39, 53.8%). 34/126 (27.0%) patients survived to 30 days after transport to an emergency department (ED) at a PPCI- capable hospital, and 50/310 (16.1%) survived if taken to ED at a non-PPCI capable hospital. Conclusion Work is required to ensure post-ROSC patients receive a 12 lead ECG, and those with STEMI are referred to PPCI, as survival was greatest in this group. 30 day survival was better for patients taken to ED at a hospital with PPCI facilities, than an ED at a general hospital. Discussion needs to take place between YAS and the relevant hospitals in the region to ensure patients are transported to the appropriate destination., https://emj.bmj.com/content/36/10/e6.1 This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/emermed-2019-999abs.11
    • Research paramedics’ observations regarding the challenges and strategies employed in the implementation of a large-scale out-of-hospital randomised trial

      Green, Jonathan; Robinson, Maria; Pilbery, Richard; Whitley, Gregory; Hall, Helen; Clout, Madeleine; Reeves, Barnaby; Kirby, Kim; Benger, Jonathan (2020-06-01)
      Introduction: AIRWAYS-2 was a cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT) comparing the clinical and cost effectiveness of the i-gel supraglottic airway device with tracheal intubation in the initial airway management of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). In order to successfully conduct this clinical trial, it was necessary for research paramedics to overcome multiple challenges, many of which will be relevant to future emergency medical service (EMS) research. This article aims to describe a number of the challenges that were encountered during the out-of-hospital phase of the AIRWAYS-2 trial and how these were overcome. Methods: The research paramedics responsible for conducting the pre-hospital phase of the trial were asked to reflect on their experience of facilitating the AIRWAYS-2 trial. Responses were then collated by the lead author. A process of iterative revision and review was undertaken by the research paramedics to produce a consensus of opinion. Results: The main challenges identified by the trial research paramedics related to the recruitment and training of paramedics, screening of eligible patients and investigation of protocol deviations / reporting errors. Even though a feasibility study was conducted prior to the commencement of AIRWAYS-2, the scale of these challenges was underestimated. Conclusion: Large-scale pragmatic cluster randomised trials are being successfully undertaken in out-of-hospital care. However, they require intensive engagement with EMS clinicians and local research paramedics, particularly when the intervention is contentious. Feasibility studies are an important part of research but may fail to identify all potential challenges. Therefore, flexibility is required to manage unforeseen difficulties. Abstract published with permission.
    • A service evaluation of transport destination and outcome of patients with post-ROSC STEMI in an English ambulance service

      Platt, Anthony (2020-06-01)
      Background: In the UK, there are approximately 60,000 cases of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) each year. There is mounting evidence that post-resuscitation care should include early angiography and primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) in cases of OHCA where a cardiac cause is suspected. Yorkshire Ambulance Service (YAS) staff can transport patients with a return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) directly to a pPCI unit if their post-ROSC ECG shows evidence of ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). This service evaluation aimed to determine the factors that affect the transport destination, hospital characteristics and 30-day survival rates of post-ROSC patients with presumed cardiac aetiology. Methods: All patient care records (PCRs) previously identified for the AIRWAYS-2 trial between January and July 2017 were reviewed. Patients were eligible for inclusion if they were an adult non-traumatic OHCA, achieved ROSC on scene and were treated and transported by (YAS). Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data. Results: 478 patients met the inclusion criteria. 361/478 (75.6%) patients had a post-ROSC ECG recorded, with 149/361 (41.3%) documented cases of STEMI and 88/149 (59.1%) referred to a pPCI unit by the attending clinicians. 40/88 (45.5%) of referrals made were accepted by the pPCI units. Patients taken directly to pPCI were most likely to survive to 30 days (25/39, 53.8%), compared to patients taken to an emergency department (ED) at a pPCI-capable hospital (34/126, 27.0%), or an ED at a non-pPCI-capable hospital (50/310, 16.1%). Conclusion: Staff should be encouraged to record a 12-lead ECG on all post-ROSC patients, and make a referral to the regional pPCI-capable centre if there is evidence of a STEMI, or a cardiac cause is likely, since 30-day survival is highest for patients who are taken directly for pPCI. Ambulance services should continue to work with regional pPCI-capable centres to ensure that suitable patients are accepted to maximise potential for survival. Abstract published with permission.
    • Temporal changes in bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation rates in England

      Brown, Terry P.; Hawkes, Claire A.; Booth, Scott; Fothergill, Rachael; Black, Sara; Bichmann, Anna; Pocock, Helen; Soar, Jasmeet; Mark, Julian; Perkins, Gavin D. (2017-09)
    • Who receives bystander CPR in a witnessed out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in England

      Brown, Terry P.; Booth, Scott; Hawkes, Claire A.; Fothergill, Rachael; Black, Sarah; Pocock, Helen; Gunson, Imogen; Soar, Jasmeet; Mark, Julian; Perkins, Gavin D. (2018-09)