• Ambulance over-conveyance to the emergency department: a large data analysis of ambulance journeys

      Miles, Jamie; O'Keefe, Colin; Jacques, Richard; Stone, Tony; Mason, Suzanne (2018-04-16)
      Over-conveyance by the ambulance service is a compounding factor of emergency department (ED) crowding. Previous solutions have focused on specific patient groups which have a limited impact when compared to the whole urgent and emergency care system. This study aims to analyse non-urgent conveyances by the ambulance service that could be suitable for discharge on-scene. https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/8/Suppl_1/A22.3. This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ DOI 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-EMS.59
    • Ambulance over-conveyance to the emergency department: a large data analysis of ambulance journeys

      Miles, J.; O'Keeffe, C.; Jacques, Richard; Stone, Tony; Mason, Suzanne (2018-04)
      Aim Over-conveyance by the ambulance service is a compounding factor of emergency department (ED) crowding. Previous solutions have focused on specific patient groups which have a limited impact when compared to the whole urgent and emergency care system. This study aims to analyse nonurgent conveyances by the ambulance service that could be suitable for discharge on-scene. Results We analysed a dataset of 1,312,539 patient episodes which linked all pre-hospital emergency and urgent calls to subsequent ED attendance in 2014. The study was set in a large region in England (total population 5.3 million). As well as proportion of avoidable conveyances we also examined the association with patient age, time of arrival, re-attendance and initial triage code from ambulance dispatch. Results There were 4 04 348 (30.8%) patients transported to ED by ambulance and of these 66 220 (16.4%) were considered potentially avoidable. There were significantly increased odds of a non-urgent conveyance out of hours (OR 1.44, 95% CI: 1.41 to 1.46). Patients aged 16–34 had the largest proportion of avoidable conveyances with 24 500 (37%). There were 13 625 (21%) episodes that were received from another healthcare professional or urgent telephone number. When analysing ED diagnosis, the highest proportion were attending with minor injury and illness, and alcohol intoxication. Abstracts A22 BMJ Open 2018;8(Suppl 1):A1–A34 Trust (NHS). Protected by copyright. on 14 August 2019 at Manchester University NHS Foundation http://bmjopen.bmj.com/ BMJ Open: first published as 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-EMS.59 on 16 April 2018. Downloaded from Conclusion One in six ambulance conveyances to ED were deemed non-urgent. The younger population had the largest amount of preventable conveyance by ambulance with diagnoses which could be treated and discharged on-scene. Pathways and interventions would provide a larger patient benefit if they were designed around patient populations as opposed to disease specific https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/8/Suppl_1/A22.3 This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-EMS.59
    • AMPDS categories: are they an appropriate method to select cases for extended role ambulance practitioners?

      Gray, J.T.; Walker, A. (2008-09)
      To examine the correlation between the AMPDS prioritisation category at dispatch and the use of alternative clinical dispatch using data from an emergency care practitioner (ECP) service dispatching on likely clinical need. https://emj.bmj.com/content/25/9/601 This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/emj.2007.056184
    • Effectiveness of paramedic practitioners in attending 999 calls from elderly people in the community: cluster randomised controlled trial

      Mason, Suzanne; Knowles, Emma; Colwell, Brigitte; Dixon, Simon; Wardrope, Jim; Gorringe, Robert; Snooks, Helen; Perrin, Julie; Nicholl, Jon (2007-11)
      Objective To evaluate the benefits of paramedic practitioners assessing and, when possible, treating older people in the community after minor injury or illness. Paramedic practitioners have been trained with extended skills to assess, treat, and discharge older patients with minor acute conditions in the community. https://www.bmj.com/content/bmj/335/7626/919.full.pdf This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.39343.649097.55
    • Exploring ambulance conveyances to the emergency department: a descriptive analysis of non-urgent transports

      Miles, Jamie; O'Keeffe, Colin; Jacques, Richard; Stone, Tony; Mason, Suzanne (2017-12)
      An NHS England report highlighted key issues in how patients were initially navigating access to healthcare. This has manifested in increased pressure on ambulance services and emergency departments (EDs) to provide high quality, safe and efficient services to manage this demand. This study aims to identify non-urgent conveyances by ambulance services to the ED that would be suitable for care at scene or an alternative response. https://emj.bmj.com/content/34/12/A872. This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/emermed-2017-207308.17
    • Understanding variation in ambulance service non-conveyance rates: a mixed methods study

      O'Cathain, Alicia; Knowles, Emma; Bishop-Edwards, Lindsey; Coster, Joanne; Crum, Annabel; Jacques, Richard; james, cathryn; Lawson, Rod; Marsh, Maggie; O'Hara, Rachel; et al. (2018-06)
    • Using vignettes to assess the accuracy and rationale of paramedic decisions on conveyance to the emergency department

      Miles, Jamie; Coster, Joanne; Jacques, Richard (2019-06-01)
      Introduction: Paramedics make important decisions about whether a patient needs transport to hospital, or can be discharged on scene. These decisions require a degree of accuracy, as taking low acuity patients to the emergency department (ED) can support ambulance ramping. In contrast, leaving mid‐high acuity patients on scene can lead to incidents and recontact. This study aims to investigate the accuracy of conveyance decisions made by paramedics when looking at real life patient scenarios with known outcomes. It also aims to explore how the paramedic made the decision. Methods: We undertook a prospective mixed method triangulation design. Six individual patient vignettes were created using linked ambulance and ED data. These were then presented in an online survey to paramedics in Yorkshire. Half the vignettes related to mid‐high acuity attendances at the ED and the other half were low acuity. Vignettes were validated by a small expert panel. Participants were asked to determine the appropriate conveyance decision and to explain the rationale behind their decisions using a free-text box. Results: A total of 143 paramedics undertook the survey and 858 vignettes were completed. There was clear agreement between paramedics for transport decisions ( = 0.63). Overall accuracy was 0.69 (95% CI 0.66‐0.73). Paramedics were better at ‘ruling in’ the ED, with sensitivity of 0.89 (95% CI 0.86‐0.92). The specificity of ‘ruling out’ the ED was 0.51 (95% CI 0.46‐0.56). Text comments were focused on patient safety and risk aversion. Discussion: Paramedics make accurate conveyance decisions but are more likely to over-convey than under-convey, meaning that while decisions are safe they are not always appropriate. It is important that paramedics feel supported by the service to make safe and confident non-conveyance decisions. Reducing over-conveyance is a potential method of reducing demand in the urgent and emergency care system. Abstract published with permission.