• ABC of resuscitation

      Armitage, Ewan (2012-08)
    • [Adult basic life support and automated external defibrillation]

      Perkins, Gavin; Handley, Anthony J.; Koster, Rudolph W.; Castren, M.; smyth, mike; Olasveengen, T.; Monsieurs, K.G.; Raffay, V.; Grasner, J.T.; Wenzel, V.; et al. (2017-06)
    • Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation: Impact of training initiatives

      Brown, Terry P.; Booth, Scott; Lockey, Andrew S.; Askew, Sara; Hawkes, Claire A.; Fothergill, Rachael T.; Black, Sarah; Pocock, Helen; Gunson, Imogen; Soar, Jasmeet; et al. (2018-09)
    • Characteristics of neighbourhoods with high incidence of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and low bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation rates in England

      Brown, Terry P.; Booth, Scott; Hawkes, Claire A.; Soar, Jasmeet; Mark, Julian; Mapstone, James; Fothergill, Rachael; Black, Sarah; Pocock, Helen; Bichmann, Anna; et al. (2019-01-01)
    • Effect of listening to Nellie the Elephant during CPR training on performance of chest compressions by lay people: randomised crossover trial

      Rawlins, Lettie; Woollard, Malcolm; Williams, Julia; Hallam, Phil (2009-12-14)
      Objectives To determine whether listening to music during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training increases the proportion of lay people delivering chest compressions of 100 per minute. Design Prospective randomised crossover trial. Setting Large UK university. Participants 130 volunteers (81 men) recruited on an opportunistic basis. Exclusion criteria included age under 18, trained health professionals, and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training within the past three months. Interventions Volunteers performed three sequences of one minute of continuous chest compressions on a skill meter resuscitation manikin accompanied by no music, repeated choruses of Nellie the Elephant (Nellie), and That’s the Way (I like it) (TTW) according to a pre-randomised order. Main outcome measures Rate of chest compressions delivered (primary outcome), depth of compressions, proportion of incorrect compressions, and type of error. Results Median (interquartile range) compression rates were 110 (93-119) with no music, 105 (98-107) with Nellie, and 109 (103-110) with TTW. There were significant differences within groups between Nellie v no music and Nellie v TTW (P<0.001) but not no music v TTW (P=0.055). A compression rate of between 95 and 105 was achieved with no music, Nellie, and TTW for 15/130 (12%), 42/130 (32%), and 12/130 (9%) attempts, respectively. Differences in proportions were significant for Nellie v no music and Nellie v TTW (P<0.001) but not for no music v TTW (P=0.55). Relative risk for a compression rate between 95 and 105 was 2.8 (95% confidence interval 1.66 to 4.80) for Nellie v no music, 0.8 (0.40 to 1.62) for TTW v no music, and 3.5 (1.97 to 6.33) for Nellie v TTW. The number needed to treat for listening to Nellie v no music was 5 (4 to 10)—that is, the number of cardiac arrests required during which lay responders listen to Nellie to facilitate one patient receiving compressions at the correct rate (v no music) would be between four and 10. A greater proportion of compressions were too shallow when participants listened to Nellie v no music (56% v 47%, P=0.022). Conclusions Listening to Nellie the Elephant significantly increased the proportion of lay people delivering compression rates at close to 100 per minute. Unfortunately it also increased the proportion of compressions delivered at an inadequate depth. As current resuscitation guidelines give equal emphasis to correct rate and depth, listening to Nellie the Elephant as a learning aid during CPR training should be discontinued. Further research is required to identify music that, when played during CPR training, increases the proportion of lay responders providing chest compressions at both the correct rate and depth. https://www.bmj.com/content/339/bmj.b4707. This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.b4707
    • Improving data quality in a UK out-of-hospital cardiac arrest registry through data linkage between the Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Outcomes (OHCAO) project and NHS Digital

      Rajagopal, Sangeerthana; Booth, Scott J.; Brown, Terry P.; Ji, Chen; Hawkes, Claire A.; Siriwardena, A. Niroshan; Kirby, Kim; Black, Sarah; Spaight, Robert; Gunson, Imogen; et al. (2017-09)
    • PaRAMeDIC: a randomized controlled trial of a mechanical compression device

      Smyth, Mike (2012-01)
      Abstract published with permission. Survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is influenced by the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). However, research shows that in the out-of-hospital environment, and particularly during ambulance transport, CPR quality is frequently sub-optimal. Mechanical compression devices can deliver high quality CPR, yet there is an absence of high quality evidence to demonstrate improved clinical or cost effectiveness outcomes. The PaRAMeDIC trial will compare manual CPR with mechanical CPR in adult patients with non-traumatic OHCA. Objectives: the primary objective is to evaluate the effectiveness of mechanical chest compressions using the LUCAS (Lund University Cardiopulmonary Assistance System)-2 on mortality at 30 days post-OHCA. Secondary objectives include survived event (return of spontaneous circulation at hospital admission), quality of life and cognitive function at 3 and 12 months, survival at 12 months and cost effectiveness. Method: the trial is a pragmatic, cluster randomized controlled trial. Ambulance vehicles are randomized to control or LUCAS arms. Patient allocation is determined by the first ambulance vehicle which arrives first on scene (manual CPR vehicle or LUCAS CPR vehicle). The trial will assess the clinical and cost effectiveness of the LUCAS-2 device. Trial Registration: The trial is registered on the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number Registry (ISRCTN08233942).
    • RePHILL: protocol for a randomised controlled trial of pre-hospital blood product resuscitation for trauma

      Smith, Iain M.; Crombie, Nicholas; Bishop, J.R.; McLaughlin, A.; Naumann, David N.; Herbert, M.; Hancox, James M.; Slinn, G.; Ives, N.; Grant, M.; et al. (2018-10)
    • Traumatic cardiac arrest: what’s HOT and what’s not

      Brown, Aidan (2018-05)
      Abstract published with permission. Traumatic cardiac arrest (TCA) is a rare event in the pre-hospital setting and has a varied aetiology. Paramedic management has changed significantly over the past 5 years. Chest compressions have been de-emphasised in guidelines, and the ‘HOT’ principles have been adopted. This principle stands for hypovolaemia; oxygenation; tension pneumothorax/tamponade. The recommendation is that these should be addressed prior to performing chest compressions. There may however be patient groups in TCA who benefit from chest compressions. A management plan including ‘no chest compressions’ for TCA is not supported in the evidence, and they should be commenced as soon as appropriate reversible causes have been addressed. In addition, chest compressions may take precedence over the administration of fluid if both cannot be performed simultaneously. Ambulance services may improve management of TCA by the introduction of an aide-memoire to support clinicians.
    • What happened on Restart a Heart Day 2017 in England?

      Brown, Terry P.; Perkins, Gavin D.; Lockey, Andrew S.; Soar, Jasmeet; Askew, Sara; Mersom, Frank; Fothergill, Rachael T.; Cox, Emma; Black, Sarah; Lumley-Holmes, Jenny (2018-09)