• Data quality and 30-day survival for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in the UK out-of-hospital cardiac arrest registry: a data linkage study

      Rajagopal, Sangeerthana; Booth, Scott; Brown, Terry P.; Ji, Chen; Hawkes, Claire A.; Siriwardena, Aloysius; Kirby, Kim; Black, Sarah; Spaight, Robert; Gunson, Imogen; et al. (2017-11)
      Objectives The Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Outcomes (OHCAO) project aims to understand the epidemiology and outcomes of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) across the UK. This data linkage study is a subproject of OHCAO. The aim was to establish the feasibility of linking OHCAO data to National Health Service (NHS) patient demographic data and Office for National Statistics (ONS) date of death data held on the NHS Personal Demographics Service (PDS) database to improve OHCAO demographic data quality and enable analysis of 30-day survival from OHCA. Design and setting Data were collected from 1 January 2014 to 31 December 2014 as part of a prospective, observational study of OHCA attended by 10 English NHS Ambulance Services. 28 729 OHCA cases had resuscitation attempted by Emergency Medical Services and were included in the study. Data linkage was carried out using a data linkage service provided by NHS Digital, a national provider of health-related data. To assess data linkage feasibility a random sample of 3120 cases was selected. The sample was securely transferred to NHS Digital to be matched using OHCAO patient demographic data to return previously missing demographic data and provide ONS date of death data. Results A total of 2513 (80.5%) OHCAO cases were matched to patients in the NHS PDS database. Using the linkage process, missing demographic data were retrieved for 1636 (72.7%) out of 2249 OHCAO cases that had previously incomplete demographic data. Returned ONS date of death data allowed analysis of 30-day survival status. The results showed a 30-day survival rate of 9.3%, reducing unknown survival status from 46.1% to 8.5%. Conclusions In this sample, data linkage between the OHCAO registry and NHS PDS database was shown to be feasible, improving demographic data quality and allowing analysis of 30-day survival status. https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/bmjopen/7/11/e017784.full.pdf This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2017-017784
    • Identification of adults with sepsis in the prehospital environment: a systematic review

      Smyth, Michael A.; Brace-McDonnell, Samantha J.; Perkins, Gavin D. (2016-08)
      Objective: Early identification of sepsis could enable prompt delivery of key interventions such as fluid resuscitation and antibiotic administration which, in turn, may lead to improved patient outcomes. Limited data indicate that recognition of sepsis by paramedics is often poor. We systematically reviewed the literature on prehospital sepsis screening tools to determine whether they improved sepsis recognition. Design: Systematic review. The electronic databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library and PubMed were systematically searched up to June 2015. In addition, subject experts were contacted. Setting: Prehospital/emergency medical services (EMS). Study selection: All studies addressing identification of sepsis (including severe sepsis and septic shock) among adult patients managed by EMS. Outcome measures: Recognition of sepsis by EMS clinicians. Results: Owing to considerable variation in the methodological approach adopted and outcome measures reported, a narrative approach to data synthesis was adopted. Three studies addressed development of prehospital sepsis screening tools. Six studies addressed paramedic diagnosis of sepsis with or without use of a prehospital sepsis screening tool. Conclusions: Recognition of sepsis by ambulance clinicians is poor. The use of screening tools, based on the Surviving Sepsis Campaign diagnostic criteria, improves prehospital sepsis recognition. Screening tools derived from EMS data have been developed, but they have not yet been validated in clinical practice. There is a need to undertake validation studies to determine whether prehospital sepsis screening tools confer any clinical benefit. https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/bmjopen/6/8/e011218.full.pdf This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2016-011218
    • PRe-hospital Evaluation of Sensitive TrOponin (PRESTO) Study: multicentre prospective diagnostic accuracy study protocol

      Alghamdi, Abdulrhman; Cook, Eloïse; Carlton, Edward; Siriwardena, Aloysius; Hann, Mark; Thompson, Alexander; Foulkes, Angela; Phillips, John; Cooper, Jamie; Steve, Bell; et al. (2019-10-07)
      Introduction Within the UK, chest pain is one of the most common reasons for emergency (999) ambulance calls and the most common reason for emergency hospital admission. Diagnosing acute coronary syndromes (ACS) in a patient with chest pain in the prehospital setting by a paramedic is challenging. The Troponin-only Manchester Acute Coronary Syndromes (T-MACS) decision rule is a validated tool used in the emergency department (ED) to stratify patients with suspected ACS following a single blood test. We are seeking to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the T-MACS decision aid algorithm to ‘rule out’ ACS when used in the prehospital environment with point-of-care troponin assays. If successful, this could allow paramedics to immediately rule out ACS for patients in the ‘very low risk’ group and avoid the need for transport to the ED, while also risk stratifying other patients using a single blood sample taken in the prehospital setting. Methods and analysis We will recruit patients who call emergency (999) ambulance services where the responding paramedic suspects cardiac chest pain. The data required to apply T-MACS will be prospectively recorded by paramedics who are responding to each patient. Paramedics will be required to draw a venous blood sample at the time of arrival to the patient. Blood samples will later be tested in batches for cardiac troponin, using commercially available troponin assays. The primary outcome will be a diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction, established at the time of initial hospital admission. The secondary outcomes will include any major adverse cardiac events within 30 days of enrolment. Ethics and dissemination The study obtained approval from the National Research Ethics Service (reference: 18/ES/0101) and the Health Research Authority. We will publish our findings in a high impact general medical journal.Abstract, URL This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2019-032834
    • Tia prehospital referral feasibility trial (TIER): recruitment and intervention usage

      Rees, Nigel; Hampton, C.; Bulger, Jenna; Ali, Khalid; Quinn, Tom; Ford, Gary A.; Akbari, Ashley; Ward, Matthew; Porter, Alison; Jones, Colin; et al. (2018-04)
      Aim Early specialist assessment of Transient Ischaemic Attack (TIA) can reduce the risk of stroke and death. We assessed feasibility of undertaking a multi-centre cluster randomised trial to evaluate clinical and cost effectiveness of referral of patients attended by emergency ambulance paramedic with low-risk TIA directly to specialist TIA clinic for early review. Method We randomly allocated volunteer paramedics to intervention or control group. Intervention paramedics were trained to deliver the intervention during the patient recruitment period. Control paramedics continued to deliver care as usual. Patients with TIA were identified from hospital records. Results Development and recruitment phases are complete, with outcome follow up ongoing. Eighty nine of 134 (66%) paramedics participated in TIER. Of 1377 patients attended by trial paramedics during the patient recruitment period, 53 (3.8%) were identified as eligible for trial inclusion. Three of 36 (8%) patients attended by intervention paramedics were referred to the TIA clinic. Of the others, only one appeared to be a missed referral; in one case there was no prehospital record of TIA; one was attended by a paramedic who was not TIER trained; one patient record was missing; all others were recorded with contraindications: FAST positive (n=13); ABCD2 score >3 (n=5); already taking warfarin (n=2); crescendo TIA (n=1) other clinical factors (n=8). Conclusion Preliminary results indicate challenges in recruitment and low referral rates. Further analyses will focus on whether progression criteria for a definitive trial were met, and clinical outcomes from this feasibility trial. https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/8/Suppl_1/A28.1 This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-EMS.73
    • What fluids are given during air ambulance treatment of patients with trauma in the UK, and what might this mean for the future? Results from the RESCUER observational cohort study

      Naumann, David N.; Hancox, James M.; Raitt, James; Smith, Iain M.; Crombie, Nicholas; Doughty, Heidi; Perkins, Gavin D.; Midwinter, Mark J.; RESCUER Collaborators (2018-01)
      Objectives We investigated how often intravenous fluids have been delivered during physician-led prehospital treatment of patients with hypotensive trauma in the UK and which fluids were given. These data were used to estimate the potential national requirement for prehospital blood products (PHBP) if evidence from ongoing trials were to report clinical superiority. Setting The Regional Exploration of Standard Care during Evacuation Resuscitation (RESCUER) retrospective observational study was a collaboration between 11 UK air ambulance services. Each was invited to provide up to 5 years of data and total number of taskings during the same period. Participants Patients with hypotensive trauma (systolic blood pressure <90mm Hg or absent radial pulse) attended by a doctor. Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary outcome was the number of patients with hypotensive trauma given prehospital fluids. Secondary outcomes were types and volumes of fluids. These data were combined with published data to estimate potential national eligibility for PHBP. Results Of 29037 taskings, 729 (2.5%) were for patients with hypotensive trauma attended by a physician. Half were aged 21–50 years; 73.4% were male. A total of 537 out of 729 (73.7%) were given fluids. Five hundred and ten patients were given a single type of fluid; 27 received >1type. The most common fluid was 0.9% saline, given to 486/537 (90.5%) of patients who received fluids, at a median volume of 750 (IQR 300–1500)mL. Three per cent of patients received PHBP. Estimated projections for patients eligible for PHBP at these 11 services and in the whole UK were 313 and 794 patients per year, respectively. Conclusions One in 40 air ambulance taskings were manned by physicians to retrievepatients with hypotensive trauma. The most common fluid delivered was 0.9% saline. If evidence justifies universal provision of PHBP, approximately 800 patients/year would be eligible in the UK, based on our data combined with others published. Prospective investigations are required to confirm or adjust these estimations. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5786144/pdf/bmjopen-2017-019627.pdf This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2017-019627