Recent Submissions

  • A paramedic's role in reducing number of falls and fall-related emergency service use by over 65s: a systematic review

    Bonner, Mhairi; Capsey, Matt; Batey, Jo (2021-05-01)
    Background: Around 10–25% of emergency calls for adults aged over 65 are attributed to falls. Regardless of whether injuries are caused, quality of life is often affected by fear of falling, leading to reduced confidence and activity, negatively impacting mobility and risking depression and isolation. Ambulance service staff are well placed to identify falls risk factors so patients can be directed to falls prevention services. This article aims to determine how the referral by paramedics of uninjured falls patients to community falls services may reduce future falls and emergency services use. http://eds.a.ebscohost.com/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=2&sid=93c754e6-fdac-46d2-9a69-95fb0f3e91e0%40sdc-v-sessmgr03 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.29045/14784726.2021.6.6.1.46 Abstract published with permission
  • ‘We wear too many caps’: role conflict among ambulance service managers

    Miller, Joshua (2019-03-01)
    Aims: A qualitative study explored how UK ambulance service managers try to identify staff at risk of becoming traumatised by their work, including how they see their role in this task. As research on managers in this field is largely limited to settings outside the NHS, the study was planned as exploratory in nature and developed themes arising from the data. Methods: Face-to-face, semi-structured interviews were audio-recorded with a purposive sample of six paramedic managers working for an NHS ambulance service. The interview guide included specific questioning on role and identity. The author transcribed these interviews and analysed them using framework analysis. Ethical approval and informed consent were obtained. Results: The participants were all clinically-trained managers with responsibility for first-line management of front line ambulance crews. They discussed their varying roles both implicitly and explicitly. The roles included: manager, clinician, peer, referrer, ‘adjudicator’, parent figure, ‘the appropriate person’ and the challenger. They discussed the tensions of managing performance and providing emotional support to the same staff, including how some managers perceived this as making staff reluctant to disclose distress. Several participants acknowledged that they were actively creating narratives from different role perspectives, and that readers of the study would also judge them against these different roles. Conclusion: This study suggests that ambulance service managers within an NHS trust may feel conflicted between varying roles, some relating to their professional identities, and some to work tasks such as performance management and staff support, which may be in tension. Some respondents felt this could make potentially traumatised staff reluctant to disclose distress, which has negative implications in a sector where stress and psychological illness is ascribed as contributing to around 15% of staff sickness. Further research could be conducted into whether this possible role conflict is seen by front line staff as a barrier to disclosing distress. Abstract published with permission.
  • ‘The ones that don’t say’; challenges in managers identifying potentially traumatised ambulance staff

    Miller, Joshua (2019-01-14)
    Background Stress and psychological illness among emergency services personnel is reported at higher prevalence than the general population, with one UK ambulance service ascribing it to 15% of staff sickness. Research in this field has focused on ambulance crew views, while manager experiences are limited to EMS systems outside the UK. This qualitative study explored how UK ambulance service managers try to identify staff at risk of becoming traumatised by their work. Methods Face-to-face, semi-structured interviews were audio-recorded with a purposive sample of six paramedic managers working for an NHS ambulance service. The author transcribed these interviews and analysed them using framework analysis. Ethical approval and informed consent were obtained. Results All participants claimed to see the identification of potentially traumatised staff as a vital part of their role. They outlined the use of case factors such as visceral elements and child involvement, and staff factors such as home life and resilience. Interviewees talked about their changing roles as managers, peers, parent figures, clinicians, and adjudicators. Factors found as enabling the identification of potentially traumatised staff included: knowing the staff, formalising handover to other managers, and manager presence – both at incidents and on station. Disabling factors included: atypical cases, hierarchical culture, and isolated remote staff. All participants reported concerns about staff being reluctant to report distress. Conclusions Limitations of this study include the small sample size, possible response bias, and respondents conforming to social norms, as their practice was self-reported, rather than observed. Manager presence was highlighted as very important by participants; services should consider this in their structures and policies. Further studies could examine staff reluctance to report psychological distress, as well as staff resilience, which participants saw as beneficial, yet difficult to define or predict. https://emj.bmj.com/content/36/1/e4.3. This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/emermed-2019-999.10
  • Better together? Ambulance staff views of human factors in resuscitation

    Miller, Joshua (2015-05-19)
    Background Research into the care of cardiac arrest patients outside of hospital is limited. Evidence from hospital settings suggests that human factors including both technical and non-technical skills and performance may impact on care. This study sought staff views from a UK ambulance service aiming to investigate areas for improvement in resuscitation performance. Methods Volunteer ambulance staff responded to an open invitation to complete an anonymous internet-based survey. The survey used a mixture of closed questions, Likert-scaled answers and free text to explore staff views on resuscitation performance. Quantitative responses were presented graphically, and free text answers arranged by theme. Results 111 staff responded to the survey. The results demonstrated that staff see effective teamwork as desirable in out-of-hospital resuscitation, but that this is not always the case currently. Staff felt more confident about practical skills such as cannulation and chest compression delivery. Difficulties were noted in: poor communication between staff members; inconsistent identification and nomination of leaders; low staff confidence in peri- and post-cardiac arrest conversations with relatives; and insufficient staff numbers on scene. Conclusions The findings demonstrate poor staff confidence in several non-technical skills, including teamwork and communication. Limitations of the survey included lack of recording of training received—where this has shifted in recent years from in-service to higher education routes—and missing demographic data. However, the findings provide specific areas for improvement activity. This has already included best practice slides displayed in ambulance stations, and proposals for identification wristbands, a role-based work standard to reduce task omission and duplication, and a policy to send higher numbers of rescuers to cardiac arrest cases. https://emj.bmj.com/content/32/6/e14.2. This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/emermed-2015-204980.8
  • Injured patients who would benefit from expedited major trauma centre care: a consensus-based definition for the United Kingdom

    Fuller, Gordon; Keating, Samuel; Turner, Janette; Miller, Joshua; Holt, Chris; Smith, Jason E.; Lecky, Fiona (2021-12-01)
    Despite the importance of treating the 'right patient in the right place at the right time', there is no gold standard for defining which patients should receive expedited major trauma centre (MTC) care. This study aimed to define a reference standard applicable to the United Kingdom (UK) National Health Service major trauma networks. Abstract published with permission.
  • Adrenaline to improve survival in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: the PARAMEDIC2 RCT

    Perkins, Gavin; Ji, Chen; Achana, Felix; Black, John J.M.; Charlton, Karl; Crawford, James; de Paeztron, Adam; Deakin, Charles; Docherty, Mark; Finn, Judith; et al. (2021-04)
  • Characteristics of Restart a Heart 2019 event locations in the UK

    Hawkes, C.A.; Brown, T.; Noor, U.; Carlyon, J.; Davidson, N.; Soar, J.; Perkins, G.D.; smyth, mike; Lockey, A. (2021-05-10)
  • Infrastructure and operating processes of PIONEER, the HDR-UK Data Hub in Acute Care and the workings of the Data Trust Committee: a protocol paper

    Gallier, Suzy; Price, Gary; Pandya, Hina; McCarmack, Gillian; James, Chris; Ruane, Bob; Forty, Laura; Crosby, Benjamin; Atkin, Catherine; Evans, Ralph; et al. (2021-04)
    Health Data Research UK designated seven UK-based Hubs to facilitate health data use for research. PIONEER is the Hub in Acute Care. PIONEER delivered workshops where patients/public citizens agreed key principles to guide access to unconsented, anonymised, routinely collected health data. These were used to inform the protocol. https://informatics.bmj.com/content/28/1/e100294 This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjhci-2020-100294
  • Did West Midlands ambulance service paramedics’ usage of adrenaline change after the publication of the paramedic2 results, but prior to any guideline change? A service evaluation

    Gunson, Imogen M. (2020-10)
    This project evaluated whether practice change occurred amongst Paramedics directly after the publication of the PARAMEDIC2 trial, regarding adrenaline administration during out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) without a change in guidelines. When Paramedics are exposed to a seminal publication there is anecdotal concern their autonomous practice changes, based on comprehension of findings ahead of potential guideline changes, however little evidence appraises whether this really occurs. https://emj.bmj.com/content/37/10/e4.3 This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/emermed-2020-999abs.7
  • ‘What is the rate of general practitioner registration amongst homeless patients who present to an English ambulance service?’

    Miller, Joshua; McBride, Shaun (2020-10)
    Marginalised groups such as homeless people and migrants experience barriers to registration with a general practitioner (GP). While various interventions have been trialed to improve registration rates, the potential for opportunistic interventions through the ambulance service has not yet been considered. The aim of this study was to determine the scope for these interventions by researching the prevalence of GP registration amongst the homeless population that present to a regional English ambulance service that covers both rural and urban areas. https://emj.bmj.com/content/37/10/e3.2 This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/emermed-2020-999abs.4
  • The ambulance service and the child and young person’s advance care plan: listening to families and professionals

    Shaw, Karen; Spry, Jenna; Cottrell, Serena; Cummins, Carole; Fitzmaurice, Nicki; Greenfield, Sheila; Heath, Gemma; Miller, Joshua; Neilson, Sue; Skrybant, Magdelena; et al. (2020-09-25)
    The Child and Young Person’s Advance Care Plan (CYPACP) is a set of resources to help families and professionals agree a plan of care to be followed when a child/young person with a life-limiting condition develops potentially (i) reversible intercurrent illnesses or (ii) life-threatening complications of their condition. It covers clinical, psychosocial and spiritual issues, is designed for use in all environments that the child encounters, and can be used as a resuscitation and/or end-of-life plan. Little is known about the experiences of Ambulance Service staff who receive copies of these plans and may be called upon to follow the recommendations for treatment and resuscitation. https://emj.bmj.com/content/37/10/e14.1 This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/emermed-2020-999abs.30
  • Clinical leadership in the ambulance service

    Walker, Alison; Sibson, Lynda; Marshall, Andrea (2010-06-18)
    Ambulance Services in England have recently launched the Report of the National Steering Group on Clinical Leadership in the Ambulance Service. This is the first document specifically reviewing the roles and development of Clinical Leadership, at all levels, for UK ambulance service clinicians. The document covers an evidence-based review of clinical leadership principles outlined in key policy documents, publications and systems; a strategic framework for clinical leadership in ambulance service; and includes examples of good current practice in ambulance service clinical leadership and development Clinical leadership has been referred to in a number of key policy documents; most notably, Taking Healthcare to the Patient: Transforming NHS Ambulance Services (DH 2005) made a number of recommendations of which Recommendation 62 is the most relevant to this document. “There should be improved opportunity for career progression, with scope for ambulance professionals to become clinical leaders. While ambulance trusts will always need clinical direction from a variety of specialties, they should develop the potential of their own staff to influence clinical developments and improve and assure quality of care.” This report focuses on putting theory into practice, a proposed clinical leadership ladder and a clinical leadership self-assessment tool for individuals and organisations. Some clinical leadership examples are also included. The completed report was formally launched at the Ambulance Leadership Forum (English ambulance services, with participation for Clinical Leadership from the other UK ambulance services) in April 2009 and will pave the way for the development of the Ambulance Service National Future Clinical Leaders Group. This national pilot, involving all the UK NHS ambulance services, will comprise of staff with paramedic backgrounds who will receive leadership development to work with the CEOs and Directors of Clinical Care groups to progress clinical quality and clinical leadership development in the ambulance service. https://emj.bmj.com/content/27/6/490.2. This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/emj.2009.078915
  • Mentorship for paramedic practice: bridging the gap

    Sibson, Lynda; Mursell, Ian (2010-06)
    In the second of a series of four articles on mentorship for paramedic practice, this article focuses on the aspect of the assessment of competence and how these relate to everyday clinical practice in term of mentorship. The article will also address the concept of competence and performance and how these two concepts can be applied to bridging the theory-practice gap that can often be the cause of poor learning and subsequent inadequate clinical practice. Abstract published with permission.
  • Seizures in the prehospital setting

    Cashmore, Jamie (2010-07)
    Seizures are a common occurrence in the prehospital arena, however, with numerous conditions causing seizures, prehospital clinicians can be left with a dilemma in the treatment of these patients. Patients who are actively seizing will predominately have their airway maintained, oxygen administered and therapeutic intervention (diazepam) initiated. One form of seizure, non-epileptic attack disorder or psychogenic seizures, are often called ‘pseudo’ seizures—an acronym synonymous in the ambulance service, this gives connotations that the patient is ‘faking it’. However, these patients often have deep psychological trauma that needs careful handling and empathy. Abstract published with permission.
  • Patient safety incidents and medication errors during a clinical trial: experience from a pre-hospital randomized controlled trial of emergency medication administration

    England, Ed; Deakin, Charles; Nolan, Jerry; Lall, Ranjit; Quinn, Tom; Gates, Simon; Miller, Joshua; O'Shea, Lyndsey; Pocock, Helen; Rees, Nigel; et al. (2020-06-14)
  • The Diagnostic accuracy of prehospital assessment of acute respiratory failure

    Fuller, Gordon W.; Goodacre, Steve; Keating, Samuel; Herbert, Esther; Perkins, Gavin D.; Ward, Matthew; Rosser, Andy; Gunson, Imogen; Miller, Joshua; Bradburn, Mike; et al. (2020-12-01)
    Acute respiratory failure (ARF) is a common medical emergency. Pre-hospital management includes controlled oxygen therapy, supplemented by specific management options directed at the underlying disease. The aim of the current study was to characterise the accuracy of paramedic diagnostic assessment in acute respiratory failure. Methods: A nested diagnostic accuracy and agreement study comparing pre-hospital clinical impression to the final hospital discharge diagnosis was conducted as part of the ACUTE (Ambulance CPAP: Use, Treatment effect and Economics) trial. Adults with suspected ARF were recruited from the UK West Midlands Ambulance Service. The pre-hospital clinical impression of the recruiting ambulance service clinician was prospectively recorded and compared to the final hospital diagnosis at 30 days. Agreement between pre-hospital and hospital diagnostic assessments was evaluated using raw agreement and Gwets AC1 coefficient. Results: 77 participants were included. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (32.9%) and lower respiratory tract infection (32.9%) were the most frequently suspected primary pre-hospital diagnoses for ARF, with secondary contributory conditions recorded in 36 patients (46.8%). There was moderate agreement between the primary pre-hospital and hospital diagnoses, with raw agreement of 58.5% and a Gwets AC1 coefficient of 0.56 (95% CI 0.43 to 0.69). In five cases, a non-respiratory final diagnosis was present, including: myocardial infarction, ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm, liver failure and sepsis. Conclusions: Pre-hospital assessment of ARF is challenging, with limited accuracy compared to the final hospital diagnosis. A syndromic approach, providing general supportive care, rather than a specifically disease-orientated treatment strategy, is likely to be most appropriate for the pre-hospital environment. Abstract published with permission.
  • Disaster rules

    Armitage, Ewan (2011-03)
  • Emergency surgery

    Armitage, Ewan (2011-02)

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