• The effect of airway management on CPR quality in the PARAMEDIC2 randomised controlled trial

      Deakin, Charles; Nolan, Jerry P.; Ji, Chen; Fothergill, Rachael; Quinn, Tom; Rosser, Andy; Lall, Ranjit; Perkins`, Gavin (2020-11-12)
    • The effects of adrenaline in out of hospital cardiac arrest with shockable and non-shockable rhythms: Findings from the PACA and PARAMEDIC-2 randomised controlled trials

      Perkins, Gavin D.; Kenna, Claire; Ji, Chen; Deakin, Charles D.; Nolan, Jerry P.; Quinn, Tom; Fothergill, Rachael; Gunson, Imogen; Pocock, Helen; Rees, Nigel; et al. (2019-07)
    • Effects of international football matches on ambulance call profiles and volumes during the 2006 World Cup

      Deakin, Charles D.; Thompson, Fizz; Gibson, Caroline; Green, Mark (2007-03-13)
      Prompt ambulance attendance is aimed at improving patient care. With finite resources struggling to meet performance targets, unforeseen demand precludes the ability to tailor resources to cope with increased call volumes, and can have a marked detrimental effect on performance and hence patient care. The effects of the 2006 World Cup football matches on call volumes and profiles were analysed to understand how public events can influence demands on the ambulance service. https://emj.bmj.com/content/24/6/405.long This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ DOI: 10.1136/emj.2007.046920
    • Evaluation of telephone-cardiopulmonary resuscitation advice for paediatric cardiac arrest

      Deakin, Charles D.; Evans, Siân; King, Philip (2010-07)
      Abstract Introduction Telephone-cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) advice aims to increase the quality and quantity of bystander CPR, one of the few interventions shown to improve outcome in cardiac arrest. We evaluated a current paediatric telephone protocol (AMPDS v11.1) to assess the effectiveness of verbal CPR instructions in paediatric cardiac arrest. Methods Consecutive emergency calls classified by the AMPDS as cardiac arrests in children <8 years old, over an 11 month period, were compared with their corresponding patient report forms (PRFs) to confirm the diagnosis. Audio recordings and PRFs were then evaluated to assess whether bystander CPR was given, and when it was, the time taken to perform CPR interventions, before paramedic arrival. Results Of the 42 calls reviewed, 19 (45.2%) were confirmed as cardiac arrest. CPR was already underway in two cases (10.5%). Of the remaining callers, 11 (64.7%) agreed to attempt T-CPR, resulting in an overall bystander-CPR rate of 68.4%. The median time to open the airway was 126 s (62–236 s, n = 11), deliver the first ventilation was 180 s (135–360 s, n = 11), and perform the first chest compression was 280 s (164–420 s, n = 9). Conclusion Although current telephone-CPR instructions improve the numbers of children in whom bystander CPR is attempted, effectiveness is likely to be limited by the significant delays in actually delivering basic life support.
    • An evaluation of the role of SCAS in the attendance to call-outs and the transport to hospital of older people with dementia

      Lofthouse-Jones, Chloe; Pocock, Helen; King, Phil; Jadzinski, Patryk; England, Ed; Taylor, Sarah; Cavalier, Julian; Fogg, Carole (2019-09-24)
      Background Our previous work has shown that 35% of ambulance attendances by SCAS are to people aged 75 and over; 17% of these have dementia. The research literature suggests that older people with cognitive impairment/dementia experience longer stays, or die, in hospital. It is unclear whether factors such as call time or availability of social care impact conveyance rates. The aim of this study was to explore the impact of out-of-hours call-outs and social care provision on ambulance conveyance rates for people aged ≥75 years, including patients with dementia. Methods For this service evaluation, electronic records for patients aged ≥75 years attended by SCAS were extracted over one year. The proportion of conveyed patients according to a dementia record, out-of-hours call, time of year, triage grade, social care provision and indices of deprivation were calculated. Univariate and multivariate analyses identified factors which may influence conveyance. Results A total of 111,548 electronic records were included, 16.5% with dementia. 63.7% of calls resulted in conveyance (59.1% with dementia). Conveyances reduced in out-of-hours periods for all patients. 13.6% more patients living alone and 16.5% more patients living with family were conveyed to hospital if there was no care package in place. Adjusted for other factors, having a care package reduced the risk of conveyance in older people living alone by 36% (Odds ratio 0.64, 95% Confidence interval 0.62–0.67). Conclusions Availability of social care and time of call appear to be important determinants of conveyance in older people, both in those with and without dementia. More research is needed to improve needs assessments and local referral services and pathways, https://emj.bmj.com/content/36/10/e6.2. This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/emermed-2019-999abs.12
    • An exploration of the facilitators and barriers to paramedics’ assessment and treatment of pain in paediatric patients following trauma (EX-PAT)

      Handyside, Barry; Pocock, Helen; Deakin, Charles (2020-10)
      A cross-sectional service evaluation within South Central Ambulance Service (SCAS) revealed deficiencies in the assessment and management of paediatric patients’ pain resulting from trauma. This suggested a need for further work to identify facilitators and barriers to pain assessment and management amongst this patient group. Studies looking into the barriers and facilitators to paramedics’ assessment and management of paediatrics in pain have been conducted internationally and not solely in traumatic events. These studies are not transferable to the UK setting due to prehospital emergency care differences within these countries. https://emj.bmj.com/content/37/10/e10.3 This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/emermed-2020-999abs.22
    • Exploring factors increasing paramedics’ likelihood of administering analgesia in pre-hospital pain: cross sectional study (explain)

      Asghar, Zahid; Siriwardena, Aloysius; Phung, Viet-Hai; Lord, Bill; Foster, Theresa; Pocock, Helen; Williams, Julia; Snooks, Helen (2017-10)
      Background Paramedics play an important role in reducing pain in patients calling an ambulance. We aimed to identify how patient factors (age, sex), clinical condition and paramedic factors (sex, role seniority) affected pain treatment and outcomes. Methods We used a cross sectional design using routine retrospective data a one-week sample of all 999 ambulance attendances in two large regional UK ambulance services for all patients aged 18 years or over where pain was identified in people requiring primary transport to hospital. Exclusion criteria patients with a Glasgow Coma Scale score below 13, or patients not attended by a paramedic. We used a multilevel design, using a regression model to investigate which factors were independently associated with administration of analgesia and reduction in pain, taking into account confounders including patient demographics and other variables. Analysis was performed with Stata. Results We collected data on 9574 patients (service 1, 2; n=3344, 6230 respectively) including 4911 (51.3%) male and 4524 (47.3%) females (1.5% missing). Initial pain score was not recorded in 42.4% (4063/9574). The multilevel model suggested that the factors associated with use of strong opiates (morphine intravenously or orally) was a pain score of 7 or above, patient age 50–64 years and suspected fractured neck of femur. Reduction in pain score of 2 or more points was significant whatever the initial pain score and associated with age 50–84 years. There was no association between use of strong opiate analgesic or reduction in pain score and sex of patient and/or sex of paramedic or crew member. Conclusion Our initial analysis showed a high level of non-recording of pain scores. There was no association between use of strong opiate analgesics or reduction in pain score of 2 points or more with patient sex or crew sex or paramedic skill level. https://emj.bmj.com/content/34/10/e11 This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/emermed-2017-207114.29
    • Extending access to specialist services: the impact of an onsite helipad and analysis of the first 100 flights

      Freshwater, Eleanor S.; Dickinson, Phillip; Crouch, Robert; Deakin, Charles D.; Eynon, C. Andy (2014-02)
      Background In November 2011, University Hospital Southampton (UHS), now a major trauma centre, opened its onsite helipad, allowing patients to be brought to the emergency department (ED) directly by air ambulance. Prior to this, helicopters were required to land at a local playing field and the patient had to be transferred by land ambulance. This study aims to investigate the impact this change in practice has had on the flow of patients to the ED. Methods The authors completed a retrospective case analysis of the first 100 patients brought directly to UHS by helicopter. Data were obtained from ED notes and helicopter provider databases. Analysis was conducted on the type of incident and appropriateness of referral. Incident locations were plotted geographically. Results 100 patients arrived at UHS ED by helicopter between 17 November 2011 and 31 March 2012. Of these, 79 were primary helicopter emergency medical service (HEMS) missions and 21 were secondary transfers from other hospitals. Of the HEMS patients, 38 were likely to have been transported to another hospital, had there not been an onsite helipad at UHS. 29 passed another suitable receiving hospital en route and therefore may have come to UHS for speciality services. Conclusions The provision of an onsite, 24 h helipad facility at UHS has resulted in a significant number of patients being transported to the hospital by helicopter who might otherwise have attended an alternative hospital. https://emj.bmj.com/content/emermed/31/2/121.full.pdf This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/emermed-2012-201948
    • Feasibility of data linkage in the PARAMEDIC trial: a cluster randomised trial of mechanical chest compression in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

      Ji, Chen; Quinn, Tom; Gavalova, Lucia; Lall, Ranjit; Scomparin, Charlotte; Horton, Jessica; Deakin, Charles D.; Pocock, Helen; Smyth, Michael A.; Rees, Nigel; et al. (2018-07)
      Objectives There is considerable interest in reducing the cost of clinical trials. Linkage of trial data to administrative datasets and disease-specific registries may improve trial efficiency, but it has not been reported in resuscitation trials conducted in the UK. To assess the feasibility of using national administrative and clinical datasets to follow up patients transported to hospital following attempted resuscitation in a cluster randomised trial of a mechanical chest compression device in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Methods Hospital data on trial participants were requested from Hospital Episode Statistics (HES), the Intensive Care National Audit and Research Centre, and Myocardial Ischaemia National Audit Project and National Audit of Percutaneous Coronary Interventions, using unique patient identifiers. Linked data were received between June 2014 and June 2015. Results Of 4471 patients randomised in the pre-hospital randomised assessment of a mechanical compression device in cardiac arrest (PARAMEDIC) trial, 2398 (53.6%) were not known to be deceased at emergency department arrival and were eligible for linkage. We achieved an overall match rate of 86.7% in the combined HES accident and emergency, inpatient and critical care dataset, with variable match rates (4.2%–80.4%) in individual datasets. Patient demographics, cardiac arrest-related characteristics and major outcomes were predominantly similar between HES matched and unmatched groups, in the linkage apart from location, response time and return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) at handover. Conclusions This study shows that it is feasible to track patients from the prehospital setting through to hospital admission using routinely available administrative datasets with a moderate to high degree of success. This approach has the potential to complement the trial data with the demographic and clinical management information about the studied cohort, as well as to improve the efficiency and reduce the costs of follow-up in cardiac arrest trials. https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/8/7/e021519 This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-021519
    • HEMS dispatch: A systematic review

      Eaton, Georgette; Brown, Simon; Raitt, James (2018-01)
    • How do patients with osteoporosis make sense of their doctors’prescribing decisions?

      England, Ed; Portlock, Jane; Brown, Dave; Stephens, Martin (2010-09-30)
    • Human factors in prehospital research: lessons from the PARAMEDIC trial

      Pocock, Helen; Deakin, Charles D.; Quinn, Tom; Perkins, Gavin D.; Horton, Jessica; Gates, Simon (2016-08)
      Background There is an urgent need to develop prehospital research capability in order to improve the care of patients presenting to emergency medical services (EMS). The Prehospital Randomised Assessment of a Mechanical compression Device In Cardiac arrest trial, a pragmatic cluster randomised trial evaluating the LUCAS-2 device, represents the largest randomised controlled trial conducted by UK ambulance services to date. The aim of this study was to identify and analyse factors that may influence paramedic attitudes to, and participation in, clinical trials. Methods Personal and organisational experience from this trial was assessed by feedback from a workshop attended by collaborators from participating EMS and a survey of EMS personnel participating in the trial. A work systems model was used to explain the impact of five interwoven themes—person, organisation, tasks, tools & technology and environment—on trial conduct including gathering of high-quality data. Results The challenge of training a geographically diverse EMS workforce required development of multiple educational solutions. In order to operationalise the trial protocol, internal organisational relationships were perceived as essential. Staff perceptions of the normalisation of participation and ownership of the trial influenced protocol compliance rates. Undertaking research was considered less burdensome when additional tasks were minimised and more difficult when equipment was unavailable. The prehospital environment presents practical challenges for undertaking clinical trials, but our experience suggests these are not insurmountable and should not preclude conducting high-quality research in this setting. Conclusions Application of a human factors model to the implementation of a clinical trial protocol has improved understanding of the work system, which can inform the future conduct of clinical trials and foster a research culture within UK ambulance services https://emj.bmj.com/content/emermed/33/8/562.full.pdf This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/emermed-2015-204916
    • Human factors in student paramedic practice

      Matheson, Rose (2019-01-12)
      Abstract published with permission. Human factors affect paramedic practice and training. However, although there are frequent references to human factors in the literature, little evidence on this is available on those that influence student paramedic development. A personal experience as a student paramedic highlighted certain human factors unique to the role, most notably how interactions between students and mentors can affect a student's practice. Following this, the awareness and effect of human factors within the student paramedic role were investigated. Discussions regarding human factors that influence a student paramedic's development on practice placements remain in their infancy. The student paramedic role is unique and challenging, and involves developing a level of resilience that continues post registration. Because of the role's emotive nature, students need to increase their awareness and management of human factors to prevent them from affecting their practice. Equally, educators need to have a greater focus on encouraging and teaching coping strategies. Practitioners who work with students do so whether they choose to be a mentor or not and many may feel unprepared for the role. Interactions between students and clinician mentors are complicated and future research will be required to determine the best approach to aid student development in the placement environment.
    • Identification of characteristics of neighbourhoods with high incidence of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and low bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation rates

      Brown, Terry P.; Hawkes, Claire A.; Booth, Scott J.; Fothergill, Rachael; Black, Sara; Bichmann, Anna; Pocock, Helen; Soar, Jasmeet; Mark, Julian; Benger, Jonathan R.; et al. (2017-09)
    • Improving the quality of ambulance crew hand-overs: a qualitive study of knowledge transfer in emergency care teams

      Murray, Steve; Crouch, Robert; Pope, Catherine; Lattimer, Val; Thompson, Fizz; Deakin, Charles D.; Ainsworth-Smith, Mark (2011-03)
      Introduction Ambulance crews make 3.6 million emergency journeys each year. Effective patient transfer relies on verbal, non-verbal and documentary handover of complex information in time-limited environments. Weaknesses in ambulance handover have been noted but little work has been done to investigate the process and identify good practice. Research has looked at communication during transfer of care; standardised resuscitation handover formats have been used but do not always improve accuracy. Ineffective handover threatens patient safety, quality and efficiency of care. This study provides an in-depth examination of handover to inform practice and education. Method We are conducting an ethnographic case study of handover in an ambulance Trust. Researchers are accompanying crews as they undertake their day-to-day work, using observation and video-recording to capture handover—from data collection at scene, pre-alerting (by radio, telephone and computer) through to the hospital. We are also collecting information from patient records along with training materials, policies and directives pertaining to handover. Ethnography allows for informal conversations to take place as appropriate during the fieldwork to clarify understandings and explore emerging themes in the analysis. In addition we are using semi-structured interviews with patients, carers, ambulance staff, nurses, doctors and non-clinical hospital staff to explore the handover process. Result The project started 2nd April 2009. This poster will outline the methodology, present some of the emerging themes from our analysis and describe future data collection and analysis plans. Discussion This is an ongoing project. We will present our experience of undertaking this unusual project—especially issues surrounding accessing staff and the practicalities of data collection. By presenting this work we seek to inform future research into emergency care. https://emj.bmj.com/content/emermed/28/3/e1.11.full.pdf This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/emj.2010.108605.19
    • Incidence and costs of severe hypoglycaemia requiring attendance by the emergency medical services in South Central England

      Farmer, A.J.; Brockbank, K.J.; Keech, M.L.; England, Ed; Deakin, Charles D. (2012-11)