• Bacterial tonsillitis: prevalence, prediction and treatment by the ECP

      Winch, Spencer (2010-09)
      Sore throat or tonsillitis is not necessarily considered a life-threatening emergency but such calls are received and attended to by the ambulance service. It is believed that this is because a face-to-face assessment is often required as the symptoms of a high temperature, headache, lethargy, vomiting and a stiff neck are far too similar to those of meningitis. With complex telephone triage now being performed by nurses and emergency care practitioners (ECP) on clinical support desks within most emergency operation centres, it is hoped that this complaint could be narrowed down and a more appropriate ECP response despatched. When presented with tonsillitis in the community, it is difficult for the practitioner to establish whether the infection is of a bacterial or viral origin. Learned behaviour would suggest that white exudates on the tonsils deem a bacterial origin and requires antibiotic treatment, but this can sometimes be a self limiting illness and antibiotic treatment is not indicated and will only assist with resistance. This article looks as the incidence of bacterial tonsillitis, tools to predict bacterial tonsilitis, and the correct antibiotic and length of course once established. It also briefly touches on the Department of Health's current consultation on paramedic prescribing rights and how a delayed prescription treatment plan cannot be achieved working under a patient group directive (PGD) when treating bacterial tonsillitis. Abstract published with permission.
    • Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation: Impact of training initiatives

      Brown, Terry P.; Booth, Scott; Lockey, Andrew S.; Askew, Sara; Hawkes, Claire A.; Fothergill, Rachael; Black, Sarah; Pocock, Helen; Gunson, Imogen; Soar, Jasmeet; et al. (2018-09)
    • Can ambulance telephone triage using NHS Pathways accurately identify paediatric cardiac arrest?

      Deakin, Charles D.; England, Simon; Diffey, Debbie; Maconochie, Ian (2017-07)
    • Changing paramedic students' perception of people who self-harm

      Ramluggun, Pras; Freeman-May, Andrew; Barody, Gabby; Groom, Nicholas; Townsend, Chloe (2020-10-07)
      Aim: This study aimed to identify whether paramedic students' perceptions of patients who self-harm changed following an educational intervention. Background: Self-harm is a major public health concern with an increasing number of incidents being reported in England. Paramedics are often the first contact for those who self-harm and antipathy to these patients among caregivers, including paramedics, has been reported. Negative attitudes to patients who self-harm from health professionals is a considerable barrier to their care. Education on self-harm for paramedics has been historically inadequate, even though it can potentially improve attitudes and how these practitioners engage with those who self-harm. Method: A pre- and post-survey analysis was undertaken to examine whether any identified unsympathetic perceptions of paramedic students (n=30) towards patients who self-harm would decrease following an educational intervention, using a validated questionnaire measuring attitudes to self-harm. Results: Perceptions of people who self-harm were generally moderately negative prior to the educational intervention, with a significant drop in negative attitudes after it was completed. A survey showed that this drop was also mostly sustained 10 months later. Conclusion: Educational interventions may help to reduce negative perceptions of patients who self-harm in paramedic students. Abstract published with permission.
    • Characteristics of neighbourhoods with high incidence of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and low bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation rates in England

      Brown, Terry P.; Booth, Scott; Hawkes, Claire A.; Soar, Jasmeet; Mark, Julian; Mapstone, James; Fothergill, Rachael; Black, Sarah; Pocock, Helen; Bichmann, Anna; et al. (2019-01-01)
    • Characteristics of patients who are not resuscitated in out of hospital cardiac arrests and opportunities to improve community response to cardiac arrest

      Rajagopal, Sangeerthana; Kaye, Charlotte; Lall, Ranjit; Deakin, Charles D.; Gates, Simon; Pocock, Helen; Quinn, Tom; Rees, Nigel; Smyth, Michael A.; Perkins, Gavin D. (2016-12)
    • Clarifying the design of the PARAMEDIC trial.

      Gates, Simon; Quinn, Tom; Lall, Ranjit; Deakin, Charles D.; Perkins, Gavin D. (2015-07)
    • A clinical audit of the electronic data capture of dementia in ambulance service patient records

      Pocock, Helen; Jadzinski, Patryk; Taylor-Jones, Chloe; King, Phil; England, Ed; Fogg, Carole (2018-03)
      Abstract published with permission. Background: Dementia is a common diagnosis in older people. It is important to identify and record dementia on emergency call-outs, as it impacts on subsequent care decisions. Ambulance services are changing from paper to electronic patient records, but there are limited data on how frequently and in which sections of the electronic patient record dementia is being recorded. Aims: To audit the proportion of ambulance electronic patient records where dementia is recorded for patients aged (i) 65 and above and (ii) 75 and above, and to describe the sections in the electronic patient record in which dementia is recorded, as there is currently no standardised button or field available. Results: A total of 314,786 electronic patient records were included in the audit, over a one-year period. The proportion of attended calls with ‘dementia’ recorded in the electronic patient record in patients aged 65+ was 13.5%, increasing to 16.5% in patients aged 75+, which is similar to that recorded in previous literature. For patients aged 75+ conveyed to hospital, 15.2% had ‘dementia’ recorded in the electronic patient record, which may indicate under-recording. Recording of dementia between Clinical Commissioning Groups varied between 11.0% and 15.3%. Dementia was recorded in 16 different free-text fields, and 38.4% of records had dementia recorded in more than one field. Conclusion: This audit demonstrates high variability in both the frequency of recording dementia and also the location in the electronic patient record. To ensure consistent recording and ease of retrieval to inform patient care and handover, we propose that the electronic patient record should be modified to reflect paramedics’ needs, and those of the healthcare staff who receive and act on the report. Enhanced training for paramedics in the importance and method of recording dementia is required. Future data will enable accurate monitoring of trends in conveyance, and inform justifications for alternative services and novel referral pathways.
    • The cost-effectiveness of a mechanical compression device in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

      Marti, Joachim; Hulme, Claire; Ferreira, Zenia; Nikolova, Silviya; Lall, Ranjit; Kaye, Charlotte; Smyth, Michael A.; Kelly, Charlotte; Quinn, Tom; Gates, Simon; et al. (2017-08)
    • Cost-effectiveness of adrenaline for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

      Achana, Felix; Petrou, Stavros; Madan, Jason; Khan, Kamran; Ji, Chen; Hossain, Anower; Lall, Ranjit; Slowther, Anne Marie; Deakin, Charles; Quinn, Tom; et al. (2020-09-27)
    • A critical reassessment of ambulance service airway management in prehospital care: Joint Royal Colleges Ambulance Liaison Committee Airway Working Group, June 2008

      Deakin, Charles D.; Clarke, Tom; Nolan, Jerry P.; Zideman, David; Gwinnutt, Carl; Moore, Fionna; Keeble, Carl; Blancke, Wim (2010-03)
      Paramedic tracheal intubation has been practised in the UK for more than 20 years and is currently a core skill for paramedics. Growing evidence suggests that tracheal intubation is not the optimal method of airway management by paramedics and may be detrimental to patient outcomes. There is also evidence that the current initial training of 25 intubations performed in-hospital is inadequate, and that the lack of ongoing intubation practice may compound this further. Supraglottic airway devices (eg, laryngeal mask airway), which were not available when extended training and paramedic intubation was first introduced, are now in use in many ambulance services and are a suitable alternative prehospital airway device for paramedics. https://emj.bmj.com/content/27/3/226.long. This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/emj.2009.082115