• Acquisition and interpretation of focused diagnostic ultrasound images by ultrasound-naive advanced paramedics: trialling a PHUS education programme

      Brooke, Mike; Walton, Julie; Scutt, Diane; Connolly, Jim; Jarman, Bob (2012-04)
      Objective This trial investigated whether advanced paramedics from a UK regional ambulance service have the ability to acquire and interpret diagnostic quality ultrasound images following a 2-day programme of education and training covering the fundamental aspects of lung ultrasound. Method The participants were tested using a two-part examination; assessing both their theoretical understanding of image interpretation and their practical ability to acquire diagnostic quality ultrasound images. The results obtained were subsequently compared with those obtained from expert physician sonographers. Results The advanced paramedics demonstrated an overall accuracy in identifying the presence or absence of pneumothorax in M-mode clips of 0.94 (CI 0.86 to 0.99), compared with the experts who achieved 0.93 (CI 0.67 to 1.0). In two-dimensional mode, the advanced paramedics demonstrated an overall accuracy of 0.78 (CI 0.72 to 0.83), compared with the experts who achieved 0.76 (CI 0.62 to 0.86). In total, the advanced paramedics demonstrated an overall accuracy at identifying the presence or absence of pneumothorax in prerecorded video clip images of 0.82 (CI 0.77 to 0.86), in comparison with the expert users of 0.80 (CI 0.68 to 0.88). All of the advanced paramedics passed the objective structured clinical examination and achieved a practical standard considered by the examiners to be equivalent to that which would be expected from candidates enrolled on the thoracic module of the College of Emergency Medicine level 2 ultrasound programme. Conclusion This trial demonstrated that ultrasoundnaive practitioners can achieve an acceptable standard of competency in a simulated environment in a relatively short period of time. https://emj.bmj.com/content/emermed/29/4/322.full.pdf This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/emj.2010.106484
    • Acute quadriceps injury: a case study

      Newton, Mark; Walker, Jacqui (2004-12)
    • Administering naloxone: is the answer under our noses?

      Bisset, Elspeth (2009-06-01)
      The intranasal (IN) administration of naloxone to treat opioid overdoses offers many benefi ts over the current, often problematic intravenous and intramuscular routes. Such problems include using sharps around potentially aggressive patients; a high risk of transmitting blood-borne infections and diffi culty obtaining intravenous access in injecting drug users. A literature search was undertaken to examine the effectiveness of the IN route of naloxone administration in comparison to these other routes. Research suggests that the IN route is safe to introduce into practice and it is effective: the time taken from ambulance staff arriving at opioid overdose patients to them responding to IN naloxone appears to equal that of the intravenous route. Intranasal naloxone is not yet licensed for use in the UK and this needs to be reviewed. In the future this method of drug administration should result in considerable benefits and improved safety to both ambulance staff and patients, particularly for the treatment of opioid overdoses. Abstract published with permission
    • Adrenal insufficiency: improving paramedic practice

      Baines, Andy (2015-04)
      Abstract published with permission. Acute adrenal insufficiency, which includes Addisonian crisis, can lead to severe morbidity and even death if ineffectively managed. Unfortunately in the pre-hospital setting patients with acute adrenal insufficiency often receive sub-optimal care. The early administration of hydrocortisone in these cases is critical and significantly improves outcomes to the extent it can be life saving. Such therapy is part of current paramedic practice; however, there is evidence that hydrocortisone is rarely used in the pre-hospital setting. Ultimately, patients with acute adrenal insufficiency may currently be sub-optimally managed by paramedics. To combat this, this article will define the current optimal practice in this area and explain how an e-learning package will be used within North West Ambulance Service NHS Trust to educate paramedics in best practice in this area.
    • Advance decisions to refuse treatment and suicidal behaviour in emergency care: 'it's very much a step into the unknown'

      Quinlivan, Leah; Nowland, Rebecca; Steeg, Sarah; Cooper, Jayne; Meehan, Declan; Godfrey, Joseph; Robertson, Duncan; Longson, Damien; Potokar, John; Davies, Rosie; et al. (2019-06-13)
    • An alternative model of pre-hospital care for 999 patients who require non-emergency medical assistance

      Blodgett, Joanna M; Robertson, Duncan; Ratcliffe, David; Rockwood, Kenneth (2017-05)
    • Alternatives to direct emergency department conveyance of ambulance patients: a scoping review of the evidence

      Blodgett, Joanna M; Robertson, Duncan; Pennington, Elspeth; Ratcliffe, David; Rockwood, Kenneth (2021-01)
    • The art and science of mentorship in action

      Jones, Paul; Comber, Jason; Conboy, Adrian (2012-08)
      Abstract published with permission. The authors have collaborated to produce this article bringing together more than 60years of combined experience of paramedic practice, education and management. All maintain their paramedic registration and have among their goals the advancement and development of knowledge, skills and professionalism to promote an effective contemporary paramedic who continues to meet the care needs of the communities they serve. Practice mentors are pivotal to the success of a modern, fit-for-purpose paramedic curriculum that requires a significant proportion of learning and assessment to take place in the practice setting. This article focuses on the support that is needed for mentors during major professional and organisational change. Change which is aligned to localised multifaceted organisational strategies and change which includes supporting mentors, enabling them to carry out their function professionally, effectively and with confidence. This article discusses experiences of a collaborative, structured approach to mentorship support which is achieved through organisational, educational and professional alliances. It also explores other approaches and suggests a way forward in terms of a national governance framework.
    • Assessment of frailty in Alzheimer’s: a literature review

      Smith, Kirsty; Wallington, Sophie (2019-07)
    • Asthma: an overview of prehospital care

      Scholes, Steven (2008-12)
      Asthma exacerbations are characterized by progressive increase in shortness of breath, decrease in expiratory airflow, productive or non-productive cough, wheezing and feeling of chest tightness. Emergency hospital admissions for asthma are costly and it is estimated 75% are avoidable through effective asthma management and routine care. This article addresses asthma management in prehospital care explaining relevant underlying pathophysiology of asthma exacerbations to provide clinicians with a greater understanding of asthma and its pharmacological and ventilatory management. Abstract published with permission.
    • Breaking bad news and managing family during an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

      Mainds, Matthew D.; Jones, Colin (2018-07)
      Abstract published with permission. The management of family during out-of-hospital cardiac arrests and death notification to the family of the deceased in the out-of-hospital setting are topics that are poorly evidenced. Two focus groups consisting of six participants in each were conducted, discussing the two subjects. The results suggest that paramedics prefer family not to be present in the room for a number of reasons and that they don’t feel sufficiently trained by their paramedic courses in order to manage family during resuscitation or breaking bad news. The study highlighted a need for more research on both subjects.
    • Building up a positive culture

      Smith, Daniel (2019-01-12)
    • Bypassing nearest hospital for more distant neuroscience care in head-injured adults with suspected traumatic brain injury: findings of the head injury transportation straight to neurosurgery (HITS-NS) pilot cluster randomised trial

      Lecky, Fiona E.; Russell, Wanda; McClelland, Graham; Pennington, Elspeth; Fuller, Gordon W.; Goodacre, Steve; Han, Kyee; Curran, Andrew; Holliman, Damian; Chapman, Nathan; et al. (2017-10)
      Objective Reconfiguration of trauma services, with direct transport of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) to specialist neuroscience centres (SNCs)— bypassing non-specialist acute hospitals (NSAHs), could improve outcomes. However, delays in stabilisation of airway, breathing and circulation (ABC) may worsen outcomes when compared with selective secondary transfer from nearest NSAH to SNC. We conducted a pilot cluster randomised controlled trial to determine the feasibility and plausibility of bypassing suspected patients with TBI —directly into SNCs—producing a measurable effect. Setting Two English Ambulance Services. Participants 74 clusters (ambulance stations) were randomised within pairs after matching for important characteristics. Clusters enrolled head-injured adults— injured nearest to an NSAH—with internationally accepted TBI risk factors and stable ABC. We excluded participants attended by Helicopter Emergency Medical Services or who were injured more than 1 hour by road from nearest SNC. Interventions Intervention cluster participants were transported directly to an SNC bypassing nearest NSAH; control cluster participants were transported to nearest NSAH with selective secondary transfer to SNC. Outcomes Trial recruitment rate (target n=700 per annum) and percentage with TBI on CT scan (target 80%) were the primary feasibility outcomes. 30-day mortality, 6-month Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale and quality of life were secondary outcomes. Results 56 ambulance station clusters recruited 293 patients in 12 months. The trial arms were similar in terms of age, conscious level and injury severity. Less than 25% of recruited patients had TBI on CT (n=70) with 7% (n=20) requiring neurosurgery. Complete case analysis showed similar 30-day mortality in the two trial arms (control=8.8 (2.7–14.0)% vs intervention=9.4(2.3–14.0)%). Conclusion Bypassing patients with suspected TBI to SNCs gives an overtriage (false positive) ratio of 13:1 for neurosurgical intervention and 4:1 for TBI. A measurable effect from a full trial of early neuroscience care following bypass is therefore unlikely https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/bmjopen/7/10/e016355.full.pdf This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2017-016355