• Acquisition and interpretation of focused diagnostic ultrasound images by ultrasound-naive advanced paramedics: trialling a PHUS education programme

      Brooke, Mike; Walton, Julie; Scutt, Diane; Connolly, Jim; Jarman, Bob (2012-04)
      Objective This trial investigated whether advanced paramedics from a UK regional ambulance service have the ability to acquire and interpret diagnostic quality ultrasound images following a 2-day programme of education and training covering the fundamental aspects of lung ultrasound. Method The participants were tested using a two-part examination; assessing both their theoretical understanding of image interpretation and their practical ability to acquire diagnostic quality ultrasound images. The results obtained were subsequently compared with those obtained from expert physician sonographers. Results The advanced paramedics demonstrated an overall accuracy in identifying the presence or absence of pneumothorax in M-mode clips of 0.94 (CI 0.86 to 0.99), compared with the experts who achieved 0.93 (CI 0.67 to 1.0). In two-dimensional mode, the advanced paramedics demonstrated an overall accuracy of 0.78 (CI 0.72 to 0.83), compared with the experts who achieved 0.76 (CI 0.62 to 0.86). In total, the advanced paramedics demonstrated an overall accuracy at identifying the presence or absence of pneumothorax in prerecorded video clip images of 0.82 (CI 0.77 to 0.86), in comparison with the expert users of 0.80 (CI 0.68 to 0.88). All of the advanced paramedics passed the objective structured clinical examination and achieved a practical standard considered by the examiners to be equivalent to that which would be expected from candidates enrolled on the thoracic module of the College of Emergency Medicine level 2 ultrasound programme. Conclusion This trial demonstrated that ultrasoundnaive practitioners can achieve an acceptable standard of competency in a simulated environment in a relatively short period of time. https://emj.bmj.com/content/emermed/29/4/322.full.pdf This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/emj.2010.106484
    • The challenges of conducting prehospital research: successes and lessons learnt from the Head Injury Transportation Straight to Neurosurgery (HITS-NS) trial

      McClelland, Graham; Pennington, Elspeth; Byers, Sonia; Russell, Wanda; Lecky, Fiona (2015-08)
      Head Injury Transportation Straight to Neurosurgery was a cluster randomised trial studying suspected severe head injury treatment pathways conducted in the North East Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust and North West Ambulance Service NHS Trust between January 2012 and March 2013. This was the world's first large scale trial of any trauma bypass and was conducted as a feasibility study. This short report will describe some of the lessons learnt during this ground breaking and complex trial. https://emj.bmj.com/content/32/8/663.long This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/emermed-2014-203870
    • Clinical navigation for beginners: the clinical utility and safety of the Paramedic Pathfinder

      Newton, Mark; Tunn, Eddie; Moses, Ian; Ratcliffe, David; Mackway-Jones, Kevin C. (2014-10)
      Background English Ambulance Services are faced with annual increases in emergency demand. Addressing the demand for low acuity emergency calls relies upon the ability of ambulance clinicians to accurately identify the most appropriate destination or referral pathway. Given the risk of undertriage, the challenge is to develop processes that can safely determine patient dispositions, thereby increasing the number of patients receiving care closer to home. Aims The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical utility and safety of triage support tools (Paramedic Pathfinders). Methods Two triage filters (Pathfinders) were developed (one medical, one trauma). These were applied by ambulance clinicians to 481 patients who had been transported to emergency departments (EDs). Preferred (gold standard) patient dispositions were established by senior medical practitioners using both ambulance and ED clinical records. The clinical utility of ambulance clinicians using Pathfinders was evaluated against this gold standard. Results The Medical Pathfinder was applied to 367 patients (76.3%) and the Trauma Pathfinder to 114 (23.7%). Agreement between ambulance clinician and gold standard was achieved in 387 cases (80.5%) giving the tools a combined sensitivity of 94.83% and specificity of 57.9%. 20.9% of medical patients and 30.7% of trauma patients who had been transported to hospital could have been safely cared for elsewhere. Conclusions Ambulance clinicians using Pathfinders have demonstrated acceptable levels of sensitivity in identifying patients who require ED care. The actual impact of the tools in clinical practice will be dependent on the provision of suitable alternatives to ED. https://emj.bmj.com/content/emermed/31/e1/e29.full.pdf This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/emermed-2012-202033
    • Frailty as lived, frailty as applied: exploring lived experiences in older patients who have fallen and called 999

      Robertson, Duncan; Cooke, Mary (2016-09)
      Rationale The aim of this pilot study was to explore the personal meanings of frailty within a purposive sample of older patients who had fallen, needed an Emergency Ambulance Service response and were subsequently referred to a falls service. A systematic literature review indicated that no qualitative studies had been carried out within such a sample previously. Methods The qualitative methodology used Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis; which explored the essential nature of frailty as a phenomenon though a series of subjective narrative accounts generated by focused interviews. Employing a reflexive approach to the analysis allowed completion of a participant-centred and ethically sound study. Results Analysis of six focused interviews with older adults provided a thick description which highlighted five themes: Adaptations to frailty, Focus on confidence as psychological frailty, A changing lifeworld-towards social frailty, Reconciling a frail future and Frailty as stigma. These themes were discussed in relation to sociological literature including theories concerning transitions from the third to fourth age, liminality and social death, frailty as stigma and frailty as lived and frailty as applied. Implications This sample of patients represented a group in transition. They occupied a liminal zone situated between the third and fourth age and while acknowledging oldness, they actively challenged biomedical assumptions of frailty through an emphasis on control and individual agency. This study enables paramedics to modulate their communications when encountering elders who reject the notion of frailty as a term applied. For service design, the results allow the voice of the patient group to be heard, so that solutions can be designed in an inclusive, rather than hierarchical fashion. Significantly, this thesis forms part of an emerging body of evidence that questions the usefulness of the term frailty as experienced by this sample of participants. https://emj.bmj.com/content/emermed/33/9/e11.1.full.pdf This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/emermed-2016-206139.35
    • Joint Royal College Ambulance Liaison Committee Airway Working Group commentary

      Jackson, Mike (2010-03)
      The publication of the paper by the Joint Royal College Ambulance Liaison Committee Airway Working Group (JRCALC AWG) will no doubt start a fierce debate among the paramedic and medical professions about prehospital intubation. Prehospital intubation performed by paramedics is a profession-defining skill, has been practised by paramedics in the UK for over 20 years, and has been a mainstay of prehospital airway management. In a survey of paramedics in the USA, prehospital intubation was ranked as a more important skill than defibrillation and patient assessment.1 Most of the literature reviewed by the JRCALC AWG was from the USA and included studies of drug-assisted intubation. Wang and associates2 examined 592 attempts at intubation in one year and found 536 of these to be successful (90.5%); another study of 264 paediatric prehospital intubations reported a much higher success rate of 99%,3 Bulger and colleagues4 in Seattle reported a success rate of 98.4% and in Bellingham, Washington, Wayne and Friedland5 reported a 95.5% success rate. It must be said that there are significant differences in the training and education of paramedics between the USA and the UK. The national standard curriculum for emergency medical technicians in the USA6 states that paramedics require only five successful intubations before graduation, whereas in the UK until recently paramedics needed to achieve 25 successful intubations. It is recognised that achieving intubation of the trachea does not necessarily mean the individual is proficient or competent in the skill of intubation. However, it must also be noted that achieving 25 intubations provides the paramedic with a higher degree of proficiency and competency than those achieving five. Limited capacity in the clinical placement circuit and the increased use of supraglottic devices for anaesthetic procedures in hospital means that paramedics are having difficulty in achieving the target of 25; as a result the accreditation bodies no longer demand that the 25 target is met, although there is still a need to learn the skill. In the future it is likely that training opportunities will be even more difficult to secure, and so the profession now finds itself at a crossroads. We need to look at what is right and what is safe for the patient, and importantly what is achievable by the profession. This will mean looking for alternative ways of achieving competence, for example, human simulation laboratories or looking at alternative airways. Recent evidence suggests that increasing the intubation experience of paramedics leads to better prehospital outcomes.7 Further evidence suggests there is no difference between experienced paramedics and doctors in performing successful intubation in prehospital cardiac arrest.8 Therefore, rather than removing the skill of intubation for all paramedics the focus should be on ensuring a proportion, for example, those in senior or advanced roles, are given the opportunity to acquire the necessary experience. If we adopt this approach the more exposure these clinicians will have the more proficient they will become, and this will result in improved outcomes. The JRCALC AWG has recognised this as a possible solution to the current problem. Ambulance services would be able to structure their response model to reflect this clinical provision and use these senior clinicians appropriately, not only to provide the expertise but also to supervise and lead on patient care at critical incidents. By using these senior clinicians the impact upon operational performance and resources will be minimised. With the training and revalidation problems we face the time is right for newly qualified paramedics and existing ones unable to maintain their intubation skills to adopt an alternative to intubation. Supraglottic airway devices are an alternative to intubation, but the suggestion by the JRCALC AWG that we should simply replace prehospital intubation by paramedics with supraglottic devices needs to be debated and researched. There is little evidence to support the effectiveness of supraglottic devices in prehospital non-fasted patients. Research to date has focussed primarily on the use of these devices in hospitals. We have no evidence to suggest that these devices are safe outside of hospitals; thus we need further research about their effectiveness. It is a gold standard in trauma that drug-assisted intubation is the best way to intubate the patient, and it is accepted that this should only be done by skilled operatives who perform the procedure regularly. However, although the JRCALC AWG agrees there is little evidence that prehospital intubation without anaesthetic drugs improves patient outcomes, there is also little evidence (especially from the UK) that prehospital intubation in patients in cardiac arrest is harmful. There are many examples in medicine in which treatment is given when it has not been proved to be effective, but the treatment continues as there is no evidence it is harmful. As there is no UK evidence that prehospital intubation by paramedics is harmful, the profession needs to continue this practice for patients in cardiac arrest—but with the skill performed by experienced senior and advanced paramedics working in a robust governance framework to ensure revalidation and maintenance of these skills. In the meantime, we need to explore the use of alternative devices including supraglottic devices, to decide if they are safe as an alternative to prehospital intubation especially for cardiac arrest, and to see if they will improve patient outcomes., https://emj.bmj.com/content/27/3/171.long. This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/emj.2009.090381
    • Paramedic application of ultrasound in the management of patients in the prehospital setting: a review of the literature

      Brooke, Mike; Walton, Julie; Scutt, Diane (2010-07-28)
      ABSTRACT Objectives Recently, attempts have been made to identify the utility of ultrasound in the management of patients in the prehospital setting. However, in the UK there is no directly relevant supporting evidence that prehospital ultrasound may reduce patient mortality and morbidity. The evidence available to inform this debate is almost entirely obtained from outside the UK, where emergency medical services (EMS) routinely use doctors as part of their model of service delivery. Using a structured review of the literature available, this paper examines the evidence to determine ‘Is there a place for paramedic ultrasound in the management of patients in the prehospital setting?’ Method A structured review of the literature to identify clinical trials which examined the use of ultrasound by non-physicians in the prehospital setting. Results Four resources were identified with sufficient methodological rigour to accurately inform the research question. Conclusion The theoretical concept that paramedicinitiated prehospital ultrasound may be of benefit in the management of critically ill patients is not without logical conceptual reason. Studies to date have demonstrated that with the right education and mentorship, some paramedic groups are able to obtain ultrasound images of sufficient quality to positively identify catastrophic pathologies found in critically ill patients. More research is required to demonstrate that these findings are transferable to the infrastructure of the UK EMS, and in what capacity they may be used to help facilitate optimal patient outcomes. https://emj.bmj.com/content/27/9/702.long This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ doi: 10.1136/bmj.h535
    • Paramedic application of ultrasound in the management of patients in the prehospital setting: a review of the literature

      Brooke, Mike; Walton, Julie; Scutt, Diane (2010-07-28)
      Objectives Recently, attempts have been made to identify the utility of ultrasound in the management of patients in the prehospital setting. However, in the UK there is no directly relevant supporting evidence that prehospital ultrasound may reduce patient mortality and morbidity. The evidence available to inform this debate is almost entirely obtained from outside the UK, where emergency medical services (EMS) routinely use doctors as part of their model of service delivery. Using a structured review of the literature available, this paper examines the evidence to determine ‘Is there a place for paramedic ultrasound in the management of patients in the prehospital setting?’ Method A structured review of the literature to identify clinical trials which examined the use of ultrasound by non-physicians in the prehospital setting. Results Four resources were identified with sufficient methodological rigour to accurately inform the research question. Conclusion The theoretical concept that paramedic-initiated prehospital ultrasound may be of benefit in the management of critically ill patients is not without logical conceptual reason. Studies to date have demonstrated that with the right education and mentorship, some paramedic groups are able to obtain ultrasound images of sufficient quality to positively identify catastrophic pathologies found in critically ill patients. More research is required to demonstrate that these findings are transferable to the infrastructure of the UK EMS, and in what capacity they may be used to help facilitate optimal patient outcomes. https://emj.bmj.com/content/27/9/702. This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/emj.2010.094219
    • Paramedic perspectives towards gp referral schemes in north west England: a qualitative-observational study

      Blodgett, Joanna M; Robertson, Duncan; Ratcliffe, David; Rockwood, Kenneth (2017-10)
      Background An innovative policy developed and implemented by a UK Ambulance Service allows paramedics to refer patients to the GP Acute Visiting Service scheme. Initial evidence suggests that using this alternate route of care can decrease hospital admission rates, increase bed availability, decrease wait time in A and Es and provide substantial savings for the NHS. However, there are many unrecognised barriers to referral that have not been captured by the quantitative analysis. The goal of this qualitative-observational study was to gain insight into the GP referral scheme from a paramedic’s perspective. Methods We observed eight paramedics throughout full shifts of 8–12 hours. Data was collected using participant demographics, researcher observations and informal semi-structured interviews. All notes were transcribed, coded and analysed using a Grounded Theory approach to identify emerging themes. Results Paramedics expressed a wide range of frustrations with the scheme, identifying the waiting time, the process and a lack of confidence, experience and training as the three major barriers to referrals. They described how they approached patients with the GP referral scheme in mind, identified common characteristics of referrals, described how the triage tool shaped their decision making and shared how they involved the patient in the decision making. They shared too their frustrations with some GP decision making, which they admitted then influenced their future decision making. Finally, they described what motivated them to refer and discussed the lack of awareness and understanding of the scheme’s impact and aims. Conclusions This study provided valuable insight into the paramedic’s perspective of the GP referral scheme. Maximising understanding of the scheme, investigating the GP’s perspective in decision making and ensuring knowledge and accountability of paramedics, GPs and the public were identified as solutions to strengthen and increase referral rates and scheme success. https://emj.bmj.com/content/34/10/696.2 This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/emermed-2017-207114.4
    • Paramedic research literature 2011–2019. A bibliographic analysis of the contents of Amber, the ambulance research repository

      Holland, Matt; Dutton, Michelle (2020-10)
      The data held by amber presents an opportunity to understand the structure of the published paramedic literature, specifically the output of NHS staff working in English ambulance services 2011–2019. This period is of interest because it represents part of the development phase of paramedic research in England. The authors apply a series of bibliometric measures to generate a profile of the published literature. https://emj.bmj.com/content/emermed/37/10/e9.3.full.pdf. This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/emermed-2020-999abs.19
    • Pre-hospital diagnostic accuracy for hyperventilation syndrome

      Wilson, Caitlin; Harley, Clare; Steels, Stephanie (2017-10)
      Background Hyperventilation syndrome (HVS) encompasses a wide variety of symptoms and is diagnosed by excluding organic causes for patients’ symptoms. Literature suggests that HVS should be diagnosed and treated pre-hospitally to avoid costly attendances at Accident and Emergency departments. The study aim was to determine diagnostic accuracy for HVS of paramedics and emergency medical technicians (index test) in comparison to hospital doctors (reference standard). Methods A retrospective cross-sectional audit of routine data utilising linked pre-hospital and in-hospital patient records of adult patients (age ≥18 years) transported via emergency ambulance to two Accident and Emergency departments in the United Kingdom from January 2012 – December 2013. Agreement between pre-hospital and in-hospital HVS diagnoses was calculated using percent agreement, Cohen’s kappa and prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted kappa. Accuracy was measured using sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and likelihood ratios with 95% confidence intervals. Results A total of 19 386 records were included in the analysis. Percent agreement between pre-hospital clinicians and hospital doctors was 98.73%, producing kappa of κ=0.57 and adjusted kappa of PABAK=0.97. Pre-hospital clinicians had a sensitivity 0.88 (0.82, 0.92) and specificity 0.99 (0.99, 0.99) for diagnosing HVS, with PPV 0.42 (0.37, 0.47), NPV 1.00 (1.00, 1.00), LR +75.2 (65.3, 86.5) and LR- 0.12 (0.08, 0.18). Subgroup analyses for sensitivity were statistically non-significant but for positive predictive values were statistically significant (p<0.001) for the number of pre-hospital diagnoses and patient age. Conclusions Paramedics and emergency medical technicians were able to diagnose HVS pre-hospitally with almost perfect specificity and good sensitivity. Pre-hospital diagnostic accuracy was highest for patients less than 30 years of age and if HVS was the sole diagnosis documented. Following this study, a review of the local ambulance service policy excluding adult HVS patients from referrals to Primary Care Services is anticipated. https://emj.bmj.com/content/34/10/e3.3 This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/emermed-2017-207114.9
    • Systematic review and meta-analysis of pre-hospital diagnostic accuracy studies

      Wilson, Caitlin; Harley, Clare; Steels, Stephanie (2018-12)
      https://emj.bmj.com/content/35/12/757.long. Introduction Paramedics are involved in examining, treating and diagnosing patients. The accuracy of these diagnoses is evaluated using diagnostic accuracy studies. We undertook a systematic review of published literature to provide an overview of how accurately paramedics diagnose patients compared with hospital doctors. A bivariate meta-analysis was incorporated to examine the range of diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. Methods We searched MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, AMED and the Cochrane Database from 1946 to 7 May 2016 for studies where patients had been given a diagnosis by paramedics and hospital doctors. Keywords focused on study type (’diagnostic accuracy’), outcomes (sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratio?, predictive value?) and setting (paramedic*, pre-hospital, ambulance, ’emergency service?’, ’emergency medical service?’, ’emergency technician?’). Results 2941 references were screened by title and/ or abstract. Eleven studies encompassing 384 985 patients were included after full-text review. The types of diagnoses in one of the studies encompassed all possible diagnoses and in the other studies focused on sepsis, stroke and myocardial infarction. Sensitivity estimates ranged from 32% to 100%and specificity estimates from 14% to 100%. Eight of the studies were deemed to have a low risk of bias and were incorporated into a metaanalysis which showed a pooled sensitivity of 0.74 (0.62 to 0.82) and a pooled specificity of 0.94 (0.87 to 0.97). Discussion Current published research suggests that diagnoses made by paramedics have high sensitivity and even higher specificity. However, the paucity and varying quality of studies indicates that further prehospital diagnostic accuracy studies are warranted especially in the field of non-life-threatening conditions. https://emj.bmj.com/content/emermed/35/12/757.full.pdf This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/emermed-2018-207588
    • Terms used to describe key symptoms in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest by people calling 999 emergency medical services: a qualitative analysis of call recordings to two uk ambulance services

      Gibson, Josephine M.E.; Jones, Stephanie P.; Hurley, Margaret; Auton, Mal; Leathley, Michael J.; Sutton, Christopher J.; Bangee, Munirah; Benedetto, Valerio; Chesworth, Brigit; Miller, Colette; et al. (2017-10)
      Background Cardiac arrest outside hospital is a catastrophic medical emergency experienced by an estimated 60 000 people a year in the UK. The speed and accuracy with which cardiac arrest outside hospital is recognised by 999 call handlers is fundamental to improving the chance of survival, but is extremely challenging. We aimed to identify how cardiac arrest is actually described by callers during dialogues with 999 call handlers. Methods Data was obtained from two acute NHS trusts and their two local ambulance trusts for all cases of suspected or actual out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) or imminent medically witnessed cardiac arrest (MWCA) which led to transfer to one of the study hospitals, for a one year period (1/7/2013–30/6/2014). The 999 call recordings were listened to in full; words or phrases used by callers to describe clinical signs and symptoms were identified and clustered into key indicator symptoms using a thematic approach. Findings 429 cases of cardiac arrest were identified, of which 246 (57.3%) were dispatched using a ‘cardiac arrest’ code. 6 callers (1.4%) used the term ‘cardiac arrest’ or a synonym. Key indicator symptoms reported most frequently were unconsciousness (64.8%), ineffective breathing (61.9%), and absent breathing (48.8%). Descriptors of conscious level included diverse colloquialisms and terms relating to reduced or fluctuating level of consciousness (17.2%). Descriptors of ineffective breathing included diverse terms relating to slow, fast, irregular, agonal, dyspnoea, and shallow breathing, plus nonspecific terms (e.g. ‘breathing’s funny); and ‘don’t know’ statements. Conclusion Callers’ descriptors of key symptoms of OHCA are varied and include many colloquialisms. Call handler training should include awareness of likely descriptions, particularly of ineffective breathing, which may be more commonly reported than absent breathing. https://emj.bmj.com/content/34/10/e10.1 This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/emermed-2017-207114.27
    • The use of the Paediatric Assessment Triangle in the management of the sick child

      Ogden, Kimberley (2016-09)
      Background The Paediatric Assessment Triangle (PAT) has been proven to be effective in the general impression of the health status of the child and can interlink the potential underlying pathophysiology so to alert the clinician into how critically ill/ injured the child might be. It is a rapid ‘hands off’ approach when you first encounter the child. The aim is to highlight the use of this assessment tool to allow the clinician a step wise approach to paediatric care so to enhance our treatment in the prehospital environment. Method A mixed method approach was used to gather quantifiable data from auditing patient report forms over a 3 month period during the implementation of the PAT which was followed by a questionnaire to gather qualitative information from the staff regarding their feelings towards using it. Results Data gathered from patient report forms over the 3 month period after the introduction of the PAT showed an initial baseline of 12% of it being used. Once the tool had been implemented an increase to 63.3% showing a significant uptake from the staff who were trained in its use. The questionnaire indicated that staff were welcoming of the use of the assessment tool and felt more confident when assessing a child. Conclusion The PAT showed a marked increase in being used throughout this project and the majority of staff appeared to be able to utilise it appropriately. An attempt to perform this on a larger scale would be beneficial to gauge whether it would be welcomed on a broader spectrum amongst staff and managers. Recommendations would include receiving more training for paediatrics and for consideration to be made to create a clinical performance indicator for child patients to ensure that patient report forms are being completed appropriately and quality care is being delivered to this category of patients. https://emj.bmj.com/content/emermed/33/9/e4.4.full.pdf This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/emermed-2016-206139.16