• Defining major trauma: a literature review

      Thompson, Lee; Hill, Michael; Shaw, Gary (2019-06-01)
      Introduction: Major trauma in the elderly population has been increasingly reported over the past decade. Compared to younger populations, elderly patients may experience major trauma as a result of low mechanisms of injury (MOIs) and as a result, existing definitions for ‘major trauma’ should be challenged. This literature review provides an overview of previous conceptualisations of defining ‘major trauma’ and considers their utility in relation to the pre-hospital phase of care. Methods: A systematic search strategy was performed using CINAHL, Cochrane Library and Web of Science (MEDLINE). Grey literature and key documents from cited references were also examined. Results: A total of 121 articles were included in the final analysis. Predominantly, retrospective scoring systems, such as the Injury Severity Score (ISS), were used to define major trauma. Pre-hospital variables considered indicative of major trauma included: fatal outcomes, injury type/pattern, deranged physiology and perceived need for treatment sequelae such as intensive care unit (ICU) admission, surgical intervention or the administration of blood products. Within the pre-hospital environment, retrospective scoring systems as a means of identifying major trauma are of limited utility and should not detract from the broader clinical picture. Similarly, although MOI is often a useful consideration, it should be used in conjunction with other factors in identifying major trauma patients. Conclusions: In the pre-hospital environment, retrospective scoring systems are not available and other variables must be considered. Based upon this review, a working definition of major trauma is suggested as: ‘A traumatic event resulting in fatal injury or significant injury with accompanying deranged physiology, regardless of MOI, and/or is predicted to require significant treatment sequelae such as ICU admission, surgical intervention, or the administration of blood products’. Abstract published with permission.
    • Development and impact of a dedicated cardiac arrest response unit in a UK regional ambulance service

      Younger, Paul; McClelland, Graham; Fell, Paul (2015-05-19)
      Background Survival rates from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) vary, with figures from 2% to 12% reported nationally. Our ambulance service introduced a dedicated cardiac arrest response unit (CARU) as a trial in order to improve local patient outcomes by focussing training, extending the scope of practice and increasing exposure to cardiac arrests. CARU launched in January 2014 using a rapid response car staffed by senior paramedics responding to cardiac arrests within a 19 minute radius of their location⇓. VIEW INLINE VIEW POPUP Methods This work describes the development and impact of CARU during the initial six months (10/01/14 to 09/07/2014) of operations using prospectively collected data on all cases attended. Results CARU activated to 165 calls and attended 65% (n=107). 50% (n=54) of the cases attended were cardiac arrests where resuscitation was attempted. Return of Spontaneous Circulation (ROSC) was achieved during pre-hospital resuscitation in 52% (n=28) of cases. Patient outcomes are reported compared with service data for January to June 2014 inclusive and one year of historical data from the regional OHCA registry: Conclusions Based on these figures CARU appears to have a positive impact on ROSC and a significant impact on survival to discharge rates compared with the rest of the service (p<0.01, Fisher's exact test). Further work is needed to explore how CARU delivers this impact and how the CARU model can be implemented beyond the trial setting in a sustainable fashion. https://emj.bmj.com/content/32/6/503.2. This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/emermed-2015-204979.2
    • Development and validation of a pragmatic prehospital tool to identify stroke mimic patients

      McClelland, Graham; Rodgers, Helen; Flynn, Darren; Price, Christopher (2018-04)
      Aim Stroke mimics (SM) are non-stroke conditions producing stroke-like symptoms. Prehospital stroke identification tools prioritise sensitivity over specificity.1 It is estimated that >25% of prehospital suspected stroke patients are SM.2 Failure to identify SM creates inefficient use of ambulances and specialist stroke services. We developed a pragmatic tool to identify SM amongst suspected prehospital stroke patients. Method The tool was developed using regression analysis of clinical variables documented in ambulance records of suspected stroke patients linked to primary hospital diagnoses (derivation dataset, n=1,650, 40% SM).3 It was refined using feedback from paramedics (n=3) and hospital clinicians (n=9), and analysis of an expanded prehospital derivation dataset (n=3,797, 41% SM (original 1650 patients included)). Results The STEAM tool combines six variables: 1 point for Systolic blood pressure <90 mmHg; 1 point for Temperature >38.5°C with Abstracts A2 BMJ Open 2018;8(Suppl 1):A1–A34 (NHS). Protected by copyright. on 14 August 2019 at Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust http://bmjopen.bmj.com/ BMJ Open: first published as 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-EMS.6 on 16 April 2018. Downloaded from heart rate >90 bpm; 1 point for seizures or 2 points for seizures with known diagnosis of Epilepsy; 1 point for Age <40 years or 2 points for age <30 years; 1 point for headache with known diagnosis of Migraine; 1 point for FAST-ve. A score of 2 on STEAM predicted SM diagnosis in the derivation dataset with 5.5% sensitivity, 99.6% specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) of 91.4%. External validation (n=1,848, 33% SM) showed 5.5% sensitivity, 99.4% specificity and a PPV of 82.5%. Conclusion STEAM uses common clinical characteristics to identify SM patients with high certainty. The benefits of using STEAM to reduce SM admissions to stroke services need to be weighed up against delayed admissions for stroke patients wrongly identified as SM. https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/8/Suppl_1/A2.3 This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-EMS.6
    • Development of a prehospital assessment to identify stroke mimic conditions

      McClelland, Graham; Rodgers, Helen; Flynn, Darren; Price, Christopher (2017-10)
      Background Despite routine use of pre-hospital identification instruments, approximately 30% of suspected stroke admissions are stroke mimics (SM). Early identification may allow “false positive” SM patients to be directed to appropriate care and improve healthcare resource utilisation. Methods A retrospective database of ambulance records containing a paramedic impression of stroke was linked to hospital specialist diagnosis data from 01/06/13 to 31/05/16. Logistic regression identified clinical features predictive of SM. An assessment score was constructed prioritising specificity over sensitivity. Results 1650 patients (mean age 75.3, 47% male, 40% SM) were included. 1520 (92%) were Face Arm Speech Test (FAST) positive. Table 1 describes the characteristics in the SM assessment. Each characteristic scores 1 point if present. Table 1 Stroke mimic characteristics 86% (66/77) of suspected stroke patients scoring 1 were SM. 100% (6/6) of patients scoring >1 characteristic were SM. A score ≥1 identified SM with 11% (95% CI, 8–13) sensitivity, 99% (95% CI, 98–99) specificity, positive predictive value of 87% (95% CI, 79–94), negative predictive value of 62% (95% CI, 60–64) and a diagnostic odds ratio of 11 (95% CI, 6–20, p<0.0001). Conclusions Amongst ambulance patients with suspected stroke, a small number of SM can be identified with a high degree of certainty. This simple tool needs further validation, prospective testing in the pre-hospital environment with characteristics systematically recorded and consideration of potential clinical impact. https://emj.bmj.com/content/34/10/e5.1 This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/emermed-2017-207114.14
    • Development of a prehospital stroke mimic identification tool: a focus group study with healthcare professionals

      McClelland, Graham; Flynn, Darren; Rodgers, Helen; Price, Christopher (2017-11)
    • Development of research governance awareness to support pre-hospital studies

      Lawrence, Janet; Byers, Sonia; McClelland, Graham; Price, Christopher (2016-03)
      Abstract published with permission. Background: Development of new evidence to support pre-hospital emergency care benefits both patients and practitioners. Clinical research must be conducted within a formal governance framework but it is challenging for paramedics to access traditional good clinical practice (GCP) training due to high service demands and some content is of little relevance to the prehospital setting. Objective: To establish the content and format of easily accessible research governance awareness training for use by paramedics and other members of the ambulance service as and when appropriate. Methods: A systematic literature review identified descriptions of pre-hospital research training. An online survey sought views about the formal research training undertaken by NHS paramedics and an expert consensus process confirmed the content of training materials. Results: Research governance training was rarely acknowledged in pre-hospital clinical trial literature and was recalled by only one in eight respondents who had assisted with clinical research. A pre-hospital orientated slide set and matching assessment questions were reviewed in two cycles by an expert panel to achieve a consensus on the content and format. Conclusions: Through a structured process of literature review, stakeholder engagement and expert consensus we have developed training and assessment materials which can be used flexibly to prepare paramedics and the wider ambulance workforce for safe hosting of low-risk research activities.
    • Effect of an Enhanced Paramedic Acute Stroke Treatment Assessment on Thrombolysis Delivery During Emergency Stroke Care: A Cluster Randomized Clinical Trial

      Price, Christopher; Shaw, L.; Islam, Saiful; Javanbakht, Mehdi; Watkins, Alan; McKeekin, Peter; Snooks, Helen; Flynn, Darren; Francis, Richard; Lakey, Rachel; et al. (2020-04-13)
    • Effect of an Enhanced Paramedic Acute Stroke Treatment Assessment on Thrombolysis Delivery During Emergency Stroke Care: A Cluster Randomized Clinical Trial

      Price, Christopher; Shaw, Lisa; Islam, Saiful; Javanbakht, Mehdi; Watkins, Alan; McMeakin, Peter; Snooks, Helen; Flynn, Darren; Francis, Richard; Lakey, Rachel; et al. (2020-07)
    • The effects of adrenaline in out of hospital cardiac arrest with shockable and non-shockable rhythms: Findings from the PACA and PARAMEDIC-2 randomised controlled trials

      Perkins, Gavin D.; Kenna, Claire; Ji, Chen; Deakin, Charles D.; Nolan, Jerry P.; Quinn, Tom; Fothergill, Rachael; Gunson, Imogen; Pocock, Helen; Rees, Nigel; et al. (2019-07)
    • Evaluation of pre-hospital point-of-care testing for lactate in sepsis and trauma patients

      Younger, Paul; McClelland, Graham (2014-10)
      Abstract published with permission. Objective: Lactate is a significant marker of critical illness and mortality in sepsis and trauma patients. The purpose of this study is to evaluate point-of-care lactate testing by paramedics in a UK ambulance service. Methods: Selected enhanced care paramedics were trained to use the lactate meter in patients with suspected sepsis and patients who trigger the major trauma bypass protocol. Feedback was collected on the practicalities of using the meter and the potential impact on the diagnosis of sepsis. Results: Data were collected on 114 patients, 96% had suspected sepsis (n=109) and 4% (n=5) were patients who had sustained trauma. The participants found that the ability to take lactate readings was useful and increased their confidence in their clinical decision making. Conclusions: Point-of-care lactate measurement is feasible in pre-hospital care and appears to support paramedics in their decision making.
    • Falls: nine things to consider before dialling 999

      Hayes, Catherine; Scott-Thomas, Jeanette; Mains, Jacqueline; Barrigan, Marie; Graham, Yitka (2019-06)
    • Feasibility of phenytoin as a paramedic-led second-line anti-epileptic drug

      Morrison, Luke (2020-09-07)
      Background: Convulsive status epilepticus (CSE) is a medical emergency that is commonly encountered in the prehospital setting. In almost all prehospital settings, treatment is limited to benzodiazepines even though the standard of care in emergency departments includes second-line agents such as phenytoin. Methods: A literature search was conducted using PubMed and Google Scholar using the search terms ‘phenytoin’, ‘seizure’ or ‘convulsive’ and ‘prehospital’, ‘EMS’ or ‘ambulance’ or ‘emergency department’. Five articles were analysed and a narrative review formed. Results: Phenytoin is an effective and commonly used second-line anti-epileptic agent but there is a distinct lack of evidence on prehospital phenytoin. Phasing the introduction of phenytoin into practice while simultaneously running a well-designed research trial could provide data for prehospital providers and the wider health community. Conclusion: Management of CSE will continue to present challenges to prehospital providers. Promoting the introduction of phenytoin to select patients, administered by advanced clinicians, could be an excellent opportunity to generate much-needed clinical data and potentially reduce morbidity and mortality in CSE. Abstract published with permission.
    • The frequency, characteristics and aetiology of stroke mimic presentations: a narrative review

      McClelland, Graham; Rodgers, Helen; Flynn, Darren; Price, Christopher (2019-02)
    • The head injury transportation straight to neurosurgery (HITS-NS) randomised trial: a feasibility study

      Lecky, Fiona; Russell, Wanda; Fuller, Gordon W.; McClelland, Graham; Pennington, Elspeth; Goodacre, Steve; Han, Kyee; Curran, Andrew; Holliman, Damian; Freeman, Jennifer; et al. (2016-01)
    • How do paramedics learn to intubate?

      McClelland, Graham; Younger, Paul; Haworth, Daniel (2016-05)
      Abstract published with permission. A short cut review was carried out to establish what education and training are required for paramedics to gain initial competence in the skill of endotracheal intubation. Nineteen studies were identified with relevance to the question. The author, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes, results and study weaknesses of these papers are tabulated. It is difficult to isolate intubation from the wider subject of airway management and the range of skills and techniques necessary to safely secure the airway in the prehospital setting. The evidence presented suggests that at least 25–35 intubations are necessary, as part of a wider programme of training, to gain initial competence in this skill.