• Can the prehospital National Early Warning Score identify patients most at risk from subsequent deterioration?

      Shaw, Joanna; Fothergill, Rachael T.; Clark, Sophie; Moore, Fionna (2017-08)
      Introduction The National Early Warning Score (NEWS) aids the early recognition of those at risk of becoming critically ill. NEWS has been recommended for use by ambulance services, but very little work has been undertaken to date to determine its suitability. This paper examines whether a prehospital NEWS derived from ambulance service clinical observations is associated with the hospital ED disposition. Methods Prehospital NEWS was retrospectively calculated from the ambulance service clinical records of 287 patients who were treated by the ambulance service and transported to hospital. In this cohort study, derived NEWS scores were compared with ED disposition data and patients were categorised into the following groups depending on their outcome: discharged from ED, admitted to a ward, admitted to intensive therapy unit (ITU) or died. Results Prehospital NEWS-based ambulance service clinical observations were significantly associated with discharge disposition groups (p<0.001), with scores escalating in line with increasing severity of outcome. Patients who died or were admitted to ITU had higher scores than those admitted to a ward or discharged from ED (mean NEWS 7.2 and 7.5 vs 2.6 and 1.7, respectively), and in turn those who were admitted to a ward had higher pre-hospital NEWS than those who were discharged (2.6 vs 1.7). Conclusion Our findings suggest that the NEWS could successfully be used by ambulance services to identify patients most at risk from subsequent deterioration. The implementation of this early warning system has the potential to support ambulance clinician decision making, providing an additional tool to identify and appropriately escalate care for acutely unwell patients https://emj.bmj.com/content/emermed/34/8/533.full.pdf This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/emermed-2016-206115
    • Can the provision of alternative transport arrangements increase the availability of emergency ambulances?

      Hayes, B.; Casson, D.; Lawrence, N.; Carroll, K.; Whitter, B.; Hartley-Sharpe, C. (2006-12)
      With increased licensing hours and the rise in the much publicised binge-drinking culture, the London Ambulance Service is finding itself stretched to the point that patients with serious illnesses or injuries are at risk of not receiving the response that they need. https://emj.bmj.com/content/23/12/e68.info. This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/emj.2006.041574
    • Cerebral oximetry monitoring in OHCA

      Burrell, Lisa; Rice, Alan (2018-12)
      Abstract published with permission. Background: Cerebral oximetry allows non-invasive, real-time monitoring information of cerebral blood flow. It has recently been used to provide information about cerebral perfusion during resuscitation efforts in cases of cardiac arrest and may give an indication of neurological survival. Most of this information has been obtained during the hospital phase of treatment and little is known about cerebral flow in the prehospital phase. Methods: A systematic review was carried out, with the PubMed and EMBASE databases searched to identify clinical trials where cerebral oximetry monitoring was performed in the prehospital phase of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. It aimed specifically to answer the following questions: is cerebral oximetry monitoring feasible in the prehospital environment? Can cerebral oximetry be used as a useful marker of the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the prehospital setting? Can cerebral oximetry be used to assist decisions around prognostication and futility for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest? Results: Five studies were identified for review. Feasibility was demonstrated in four of these. The usefulness of cerebral oximetry in monitoring cardiopulmonary resuscitation has not been well explored in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Similarly, data linking intra-arrest cerebral oximetry values and prognosis in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is sparse. Conclusions: Cerebral oximetry is feasible in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest but its usefulness in guiding resuscitation attempts in this environment remains largely unknown.
    • Characteristics and outcomes among out-of-hospital ventricular fibrillation as a function of race

      Freese, John P.; Jorgenson, Dawn B.; Liu, Ping-Yu; Innes, Jennifer; Matallana, Luis; Nammi, Krishnakant; Donohoe, Rachael T.; Whitbread, Mark; Silverman, Robert A.; Kaufman, B. J.; et al. (2010-12-01)
    • Characteristics of neighbourhoods with high incidence of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and low bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation rates in England

      Brown, Terry P.; Booth, Scott; Hawkes, Claire A.; Soar, Jasmeet; Mark, Julian; Mapstone, James; Fothergill, Rachael; Black, Sarah; Pocock, Helen; Bichmann, Anna; et al. (2019-01-01)
    • Characteristics of patients who survive to hospital admission despite unsuccessful pre-hospital resuscitation

      Innes, Jennifer; Donohoe, Rachael T.; Liu, Ping-Yu; Jorgenson, Dawn B.; Nammi, Krishnakant; Matallana, Luis; Whitbread, Mark; Kaufman, B. J.; Prezant, David J.; Silverman, Robert A.; et al. (2010-12-01)
    • Choking in London

      Pavitt, Matthew J.; Nevett, Joanne; Swanton, Laura L.; Hind, Matthew; Polkey, Michael I.; Green, Malcolm; Hopkinson, Nicholas S. (2017-09)
    • A clinical audit of the pre-hospital paediatric respiratory assessment in London

      Clark, Sophie; Shaw, Joanna; Wrigley, Fenella (2014-02)
      Abstract published with permission. Assessing a child with difficulty in breathing is a challenge in a pre-hospital setting, especially children under 3 years old. Nevertheless, hypoxia must be treated early, and a respiratory assessment is essential to ensuring the well being of these patients. The aim of this audit was to update the research, as there have been changes in equipment and training since this was last addressed. A criterion-based clinical audit was undertaken of 253 patient report forms collected from the London Ambulance Service over a one-month period. The pre-hospital clinician must have coded dyspnoea (difficulty in breathing) and the patient’s age must be under three years. The observations audited were: respiratory rate, auscultation attempt and oxygen saturations, any exceptions were noted. The results showed that 85% (n=220) had two respiratory rates recorded, 70% (n = 178) recorded an auscultation attempt, whilst two oxygen saturation recordings were documented for 52% (n=131). The main reason for no oxygen saturations was ‘no kit’, accounting for 38% (n= 45) of the noncompliance. Overall, 39% (n=99) recorded all three observations in this audit. It was concluded that there has been progress since the last review; however, there is still potential for better compliance. Recording oxygen saturations especially needs improving and the availability of equipment requires addressing.
    • Comparison of outcomes for primary percutaneous coronary intervention during out of working hours versus in working hours: an observational cohort study of 11,461 patients

      Iqbal, M. Bilal; Ilsley, Charles D.; Mikhail, Ghada; Khamis, Ramzi; Archbold, Andrew; Crake, Tom; Firoozi, Sam; Kalra, Sundeep S.; Knight, Charles; Lim, Pitt; et al. (2014-09)
    • Comparison of powered and conventional air-purifying respirators during simulated resuscitation of casualties contaminated with hazardous substances

      Schumacher, Jan; Gray, Stuart A.; Weidelt, L.; Brinker, Andrea; Prior, K.; Stratling, W. M. (2009-06-22)
      Background: Advanced life support of patients contaminated with chemical, biological, radiological or nuclear (CBRN) substances requires adequate respiratory protection for medical first responders. Conventional and powered air-purifying respirators may exert a different impact during resuscitation and therefore require evaluation. This will help to improve major incident planning and measures for protecting medical staff. Methods: A randomised crossover study was undertaken to investigate the influence of conventional negative pressure and powered air-purifying respirators on the simulated resuscitation of casualties contaminated with hazardous substances. Fourteen UK paramedics carried out a standardised resuscitation algorithm inside an ambulance vehicle, either unprotected or wearing a conventional or a powered respirator. Treatment times, wearer mobility, ease of communication and ease of breathing were determined and compared. Results: In the questionnaire, volunteers stated that communication and mobility were similar in both respirator groups while breathing resistance was significantly lower in the powered respirator group. There was no difference in mean (SD) treatment times between the groups wearing respiratory protection and the controls (245 (19) s for controls, 247 (17) s for conventional respirators and 250 (12) s for powered respirators). Conclusions: Powered air-purifying respirators improve the ease of breathing and do not appear to reduce mobility or delay treatment during a simulated resuscitation scenario inside an ambulance vehicle with a single CBRN casualty. https://emj.bmj.com/content/26/7/501. This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/emj.2008.061531
    • Comparison of VF waveform characteristics and EMS response time as predictors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest outcomes

      Freese, John P.; Jorgenson, Dawn B.; Liu, Ping-Yu; Innes, Jennifer; Matallana, Luis; Nammi, Krishnakant; Donohoe, Rachael T.; Whitbread, Mark; Silverman, Robert A.; Kaufman, B. J.; et al. (Freese, J. P. et al, 2010. Comparison of VF waveform characteristics and EMS response time as predictors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest outcomes. Resuscitation, 81 (2), S25., 2010-12-01)
    • Complexity of the decision-making process of ambulance staff for assessment and referral of older people who have fallen: a qualitative study

      Halter, Mary; Vernon, Susan; Snooks, Helen; Porter, Alison; Close, Jacqueline; Moore, Fionna; Porsz, Simon (2011-01)
      BACKGROUND: Older people who fall commonly present to the emergency ambulance service, and approximately 40% are not conveyed to the emergency department (ED), despite an historic lack of formal training for such decisions. This study aimed to understand the decision-making processes of emergency ambulance staff with older people who have fallen. METHODS: During 2005 ambulance staff in London tested a clinical assessment tool for use with the older person who had fallen. Documented use of the tool was low. Following the trial, 12 staff participated in semistructured interviews. Interviews were recorded and transcribed. Thematic analysis was carried out. RESULTS: The interviews revealed a similar assessment and decision-making process among participants: Prearrival: forming an early opinion from information from the emergency call. Initial contact: assessing the need for any immediate action and establishing a rapport. Continuing assessment: gathering and assimilating medical and social information. Making a conveyance decision: negotiation, referral and professional defence, using professional experience and instinct. CONCLUSIONS: An assessment process was described that highlights the complexity of making decisions about whether or not to convey older people who fall and present to the emergency ambulance service, and a predominance of informal decision-making processes. The need for support for ambulance staff in this area was highlighted, generating a significant challenge to those with education roles in the ambulance service. Further research is needed to look at how new care pathways, which offer an alternative to the ED may influence decision making around non-conveyance. https://emj.bmj.com/content/emermed/28/1/44.full.pdf This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/emj.2009.079566
    • Complications associated with supraglottic airway use in an urban ambulance service: a case series

      Edwards, Timothy (2016-09)
      Background Current resuscitation guidelines deemphasise the role of endotracheal intubation (ETI) in cardiac arrest. Although supraglottic airways (SGA) are increasingly used in the management of prehosptial cardiac arrest, there is limited data relating to adverse events in practice. Methods Cases reported to an ambulance service medical directorate involving adverse events associated with SGA use in cardiac arrest were logged from April 2014–October 2015. Prehospital clinical notes were reviewed to determine patient demographics, details of adverse events, clinical course and patient disposition. Results A total of 6 cases were reported. All patients were male and aged between 35–83 years. The majority of cases (n=4) were associated with a history of choking and the supraglottic device was removed to facilitate ETI due to poor ventilation. In all these cases, laryngoscopy revealed the presence of food obscuring the glottis which was removed under direct vision. None of these patients presented in a shockable rhythm and 3 experienced sustained return of spontaneous circulation. In another case, insertion of the supraglottic airway resulted in traumatic avulsion of teeth necessitating direct removal under laryngoscopy. This patient presented in ventricular fibrillation following chest pain and achieved ROSC at the scene. The final case involved a 35 years male with an extensive history of deliberate self-harm who received ventilation via SGA throughout the resuscitation attempt. A plastic bag was found compacted into the airway at post mortem. Conclusions The majority of adverse events associated with SGA use in cardiac arrest related to airway obstruction following choking. ROSC in a number of these patients suggests this may have been a reversible cause of cardiac arrest. Future guidelines should emphasise the need for laryngoscopy to exclude foreign body airway obstruction prior to SGA insertion in appropriate cases. https://emj.bmj.com/content/emermed/33/9/e8.2.full.pdf This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/emermed-2016-206139.27
    • Consensus statement: a framework for safe and effective intubation by paramedics

      Gowens, Paul; Aitken-Fell, Paul; Broughton, Will; Harris, Liz; Williams, Julia; Younger, Paul; Bywater, David; Crookston, Colin; Curatolo, Lisa; Edwards, Tim; et al. (2018-06)
      Abstract published with permission. This consensus statement provides profession-specific guidance in relation to tracheal intubation by paramedics ‐ a procedure that the College of Paramedics supports. Tracheal intubation by paramedics has been the subject of professional and legal debate as well as crown investigation. It is therefore timely that the College of Paramedics, through this consensus group, reviews the available evidence and expert opinion in order to prevent patient harm and promote patient safety, clinical effectiveness and professional standards. It is not the purpose of this consensus statement to remove the skill of tracheal intubation from paramedics. Neither is it intended to debate the efficacy of intubation or the effect on mortality or morbidity, as other formal research studies will answer those questions. The consensus of this group is that paramedics can perform tracheal intubation safely and effectively. However, a safe, well-governed system of continual training, education and competency must be in place to serve both patients and the paramedics delivering their care.
    • Contemporary trends in cardiogenic shock: Incidence, intra-aortic balloon pump utilisation and outcomes from the London Heart Attack Group

      Rathod, Krishnaraj S.; Koganti, Sudheer; Iqbal, M. Bilal; Jain, Ajay K.; Kalra, Sundeep S.; Astroulakis, Zoe; Lim, Pitt; Rakhit, Roby D.; Dalby, Miles C.; Lockie, Tim; et al. (2018-02)
    • Coronary artery bypass graft patients treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention have high long-term adverse event rates (10 920 STEMI patients from the London Heart Attack Group)

      Akhtar, M.M.; Jones, Daniel A.; Rathod, Krishnaraj S.; Modi, B.; Lim, Pitt; Virdi, G.; Bromage, Dan; Jain, A.J.; Singh Kalra, S.; Crake, Tom; et al. (2013-05)
      Background Limited information exists regarding procedural success and clinical outcomes of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in patients with previous CABG undergoing primary PCI. We sought to compare outcomes in STEMI patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with or without previous coronary artery bypass grafts (CABG). Methods This was an observational cohort study of 10,920 patients with STEMI who were treated with PPCI between 2004 and 2011 at eight tertiary cardiac centres across London, UK. Patient’s details were recorded at the time of the procedure into the British Cardiac Intervention Society (BCIS) database. Outcome was assessed by all-cause mortality. Anonymous datasets from the eight centres were merged for analysis. The primary end-point was all-cause mortality at a mean follow-up of 3.0 years. Results 347 (3.2%) patients had previous CABG. Patients with previous CABG were older and had more associated comorbidities than patients who have never had CABG. In patients with previous CABG, the infarct related artery (IRA) was split evenly between a bypass graft and a native vessel. Procedural success (defined as TIMI 3 flow at the end of procedure) was less likely in patients with previous CABG than in patients who had never undergone CABG (80.7 vs 88.2% respectively, p<0.001). Patients with previous CABG had higher all-cause mortality (30.1% vs 16.7%, p<=0.0001) during the follow-up period (figure 1). After multivariate adjustment this difference persisted (HR: 1.3, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.63, p=0.02). When stratifying prior CABG patients by the type of IRA (figure 2); long term MACE were significant more likely in patients who had bypass graft PCI than in patients that had native vessel PCI, 35.7% versus 20.4% (p=0.03). Conclusions Previous CABG patients with STEMI treated with primary PCI have higher long-term adverse events. The long-term outcome is also worse if the IRA is a bypass graft rather than a native coronary artery. https://heart.bmj.com/content/heartjnl/99/suppl_2/A30.full.pdf This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/heartjnl-2013-304019.41