• Coronary artery bypass graft patients treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention have high long-term adverse event rates (10 920 STEMI patients from the London Heart Attack Group)

      Akhtar, M.M.; Jones, Daniel A.; Rathod, Krishnaraj S.; Modi, B.; Lim, Pitt; Virdi, Gurkamal K.; Bromage, Dan; Jain, A.J.; Singh Kalra, S.; Crake, Tom; et al. (2013-05)
      Background Limited information exists regarding procedural success and clinical outcomes of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in patients with previous CABG undergoing primary PCI. We sought to compare outcomes in STEMI patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with or without previous coronary artery bypass grafts (CABG). Methods This was an observational cohort study of 10,920 patients with STEMI who were treated with PPCI between 2004 and 2011 at eight tertiary cardiac centres across London, UK. Patient’s details were recorded at the time of the procedure into the British Cardiac Intervention Society (BCIS) database. Outcome was assessed by all-cause mortality. Anonymous datasets from the eight centres were merged for analysis. The primary end-point was all-cause mortality at a mean follow-up of 3.0 years. Results 347 (3.2%) patients had previous CABG. Patients with previous CABG were older and had more associated comorbidities than patients who have never had CABG. In patients with previous CABG, the infarct related artery (IRA) was split evenly between a bypass graft and a native vessel. Procedural success (defined as TIMI 3 flow at the end of procedure) was less likely in patients with previous CABG than in patients who had never undergone CABG (80.7 vs 88.2% respectively, p<0.001). Patients with previous CABG had higher all-cause mortality (30.1% vs 16.7%, p<=0.0001) during the follow-up period (figure 1). After multivariate adjustment this difference persisted (HR: 1.3, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.63, p=0.02). When stratifying prior CABG patients by the type of IRA (figure 2); long term MACE were significant more likely in patients who had bypass graft PCI than in patients that had native vessel PCI, 35.7% versus 20.4% (p=0.03). Conclusions Previous CABG patients with STEMI treated with primary PCI have higher long-term adverse events. The long-term outcome is also worse if the IRA is a bypass graft rather than a native coronary artery. https://heart.bmj.com/content/heartjnl/99/suppl_2/A30.full.pdf This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/heartjnl-2013-304019.41
    • Impact of inter-hospital transfer for primary percutaneous coronary intervention on survival (10 108 STEMI patients from the London Heart Attack Group)

      Jones, Daniel A.; Bromage, Dan; Rathod, Krishnaraj S.; Lim, Pitt; Virdi, Gurkamal K.; Jain, A.J.; Singh Kalra, S.; Crake, Tom; Meier, Pascal; Astroulakis, Zoe; et al. (2013-05)
      Background Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is the preferred reperfusion strategy in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). We evaluated whether direct transfer to a cardiac centre performing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) leads to improved survival compared with transfer via a non-PPCI performing hospital in STEMI patients in a regional network. Methods This was an observational cohort study of 10 108 patients with STEMI treated with PPCI between 2004 and 2011 at eight tertiary cardiac centres across London, UK. Patient ’s details were recorded at the time of the procedure into the British Cardiac Intervention Society (BCIS) database. Outcome was assessed by all-cause mortality. Anonymous datasets from the eight centres were merged for analysis. The primary end-point was all-cause mortality at a median follow-up of 3.0 years (IQR range 1.2 – 4.6 years). Results 6492 patients (64.2%) were transferred directly to a PCI performing centre (direct) and 3616, (35.8%) were transferred via a non-PCI performing centre (indirect). There were higher rates of previous MI and previous CABG in the indirect group, with higher rates of poor LV function in the direct group (table 1). Median time to reperfusion (symptom to balloon) in transferred patients was 58 min longer compared to patients admitted directly (p<0.001). However, symptom to first hospital door times were similar. Transferred patients had significantly lower rates of infarct-related artery (IRA) TIMI 0 flow (54.5% vs 62.9%, p<0.0001) and higher rates of IRA TIMI 3 flow (17% vs 10.7%, p>0.0001) at presentation compared to those transferred directly. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated no significant difference in mortality rates between patients with and without transfer (12.3% direct vs 14.3% indirect, p=0.060). Age-adjusted Cox analysis revealed inter-hospital transfer for PPCI was associated with all cause mortality (HR 0.89 (95% CI 0.79 to 0.99)), however this was not maintained after multivariate adjustment (HR 0.84 (95% CI 0.62 to 1.14)). Conclusions In this large registry survival appear comparable in patients with STEMI admitted directly versus transferred for primary PCI. This is despite longer symptom to balloon times. This unexpected finding may reflect the earlier initiation of medical therapy (eg, anti-platelets and GpIIb/IIIa receptor inhibitors) and earlier pharmacological reperfusion, reflected by lower IRA TIMI 0 rates at angiography in the patients transferred from a non-PCI hospital. https://heart.bmj.com/content/heartjnl/99/suppl_2/A22.2.full.pdf This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/heartjnl-2013-304019.30
    • Mechanical thrombectomy use is associated with decreased mortality in patients treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (9935 patients from the London Heart Attack Group)

      Modi, B.N.; Jones, Daniel A.; Rathod, Krishnaraj S.; Akhtar, M.M.; Jain, Ajay K.; Singh Kalra, S.; Crake, Tom; Meier, Pascal; Astroulakis, Zoe; Dollery, C.; et al. (2013-05)
      Introduction During Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PPCI) post ST-Segment Myocardial Infarction (STEMI), distal embolisation of thrombus may lead to failure to re-establish normal flow in the infarct-related artery. Manual thrombus aspiration has been shown to improve coronary perfusion as assessed by time to ST-segment resolution and myocardial blush grade. Evidence supporting the benefit of thrombus aspiration on clinical outcomes, however, is limited and inconsistent. We aimed to assess the impact of manual thrombectomy on mortality in patients presenting with STEMI across all PPCI centres in London over a 5 year period from 2007 until 2012. Methods This was an observational cohort study of 9935 consecutive patients with STEMI treated with PPCI between 2007 and 2012 at eight tertiary cardiac centres across London, UK. Patient's details were recorded at the time of the procedure into the British Cardiac Intervention Society (BCIS) database. Outcome was assessed by all-cause mortality. Anonymous datasets from the eight centres were merged for analysis. The primary end-point was all-cause mortality at a median follow-up of 2.0 years (IQR range 1.1 –3.1 years). Results Of the 9935 consecutive STEMI patients presenting for PPCI, 2859 had mechanical thrombectomy. Patients who had manual thrombectomy were significantly younger (average age 60.6 vs 62.9) and were less likely to have had a previous myocardial infarction (11.9% of thrombectomy patients vs 14.7% of nonthrombectomy patients). Patients receiving manual thromectomy were found to be significantly more likely to have had PPCI via a radial approach (33.1% in thrombectomy patients vs 19.9% in nonthromectomy patients). Procedural success (defined as TIMI 3 flow at the end of procedure) was found to be significantly more likely in patients receiving manual thrombectomy (89.5% vs 86.7%) (table 1). Patients with thrombectomy use had similar unadjusted all-cause mortality rates to those without thrombectomy use (12.7% vs 16.5%, p=NS) during the 5-year follow-up period (figure 1). After multivariable adjustment thrombectomy use was associated with significantly decreased mortality rates (HR: 0.82, 95% CI 0.68 to 0.9, p=0.04). Conclusion Mechanical thrombectomy use appears to be associated with improved outcome, in the form of decreased mortality, in this large observational trial. https://heart.bmj.com/content/heartjnl/99/suppl_2/A32.2.full.pdf This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/heartjnl-2013-304019.46
    • Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in South Asian and white populations in London: database evaluation of characteristics and outcome

      Shah, Anoop S. V.; Bhopal, Raj S.; Gadd, Stephen; Donohoe, Rachel (2009-09-10)
      Objective: To compare out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OOHCA) characteristics in white and South Asian populations within Greater London. Methods: Data for OOHCAs were extracted from 1 April 2003 to 31 March 2007. Primary study variables included age, gender, ethnicity, response times from 999 call to ambulance arrival, initial cardiac rhythm, whether bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation was provided before arrival of the London Ambulance Service (LAS) NHS Trust crew, whether the arrest was witnessed (bystander or LAS crew) and hospital outcome, including survival to hospital admission and discharge. Results: Of 13 013 OOHCAs of presumed cardiac cause, 3161 (24.3%) had ethnicity codes assigned. These comprised 63.1% (n = 1995) white and 5.8% (n = 183) South Asian people, with the remainder from other backgrounds. White patients were on average 5 years older than South Asians (69.5 vs 64.6, p<0.005). Response time (7.48 min vs 7.46 min), bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (34.4% vs 29.7%), initial cardiac rhythm (29.5% vs 30.4%) and survival to admission (22.2% vs 22.5%) and discharge (8.7% vs 8.9%) were comparable between the two ethnic groups. South Asians were slightly more likely to have a witnessed an OOHCA than their white counterparts (OR = 1.1, 95% CI 1.0 to 1.2). Discussion: The quality of care provided was comparable between white and South Asian populations. The data support the emerging view that South Asians’ high mortality from coronary heart disease reflects higher incidence rather than higher case fatality. South Asians had an OOHCA at a significantly younger age. The study demonstrates the importance of ethnic coding within the emergency services. https://heart.bmj.com/content/96/1/27. This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/hrt.2009.170183
    • Outcome of 1051 octogenarians after primary percutaneous coronary intervention for ST elevation myocardial infarction: observational cohort from the London Heart Attack Group

      Bromage, Dan; Jones, Daniel A.; Rathod, Krishnaraj S.; Lim, Pitt; Virdi, Gurkamal K.; Jain, A.J.; Singh Kalra, S.; Crake, Tom; Meier, Pascal; Astroulakis, Zoe; et al. (2013-05)
      Introduction The use of primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in octogenarians to treat ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is less than in other age groups. This is due in part to underrepresentation in clinical trials and perceived increased risk. We present long-term survival of a large cohort of elderly patients following primary PCI in London. Methods This was an observational study of 10 249 consecutive patients undergoing primary PCI for STEMI at eight London heart attack centres between January 2005 and November 2011. Patient’s details were recorded at the time of procedure into the British Cardiac Intervention Society (BCIS) database. Outcome was assessed by all-cause mortality. Anonymous datasets from the eight centres were merged for analysis. The primary end-point was all-cause mortality at a median follow-up of 3.0 years (IQR range 1.2–4.6 years). Results A total of 1051 octogenarians (10.3% of the study population) with an average age of 84.2 years (IQR 80–101) were treated with primary PCI during the study period. Over time, the annual proportion of octogenarians gradually increased from 9.1% in 2005 to 10.5% in 2010. Unsurprisingly, when compared to patients under 80, octogenarian STEMI patients included a higher proportion of women, and had a higher prevalence of hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, multi-vessel disease, previous infarction and previous CABG (table 1). They additionally were less likely to undergo radial access, receive GPIIb/IIIa inhibitors or a drug-eluting stent. When compared with younger patients, primary PCI in octogenarians was less likely to achieve TIMI flow grade 3. However between 2005 and 2011 the rates of post-procedural TIMI flow grade 3 increased significantly from 80.5% in 2005 to 90% in 2011 (p for trend 0.05). The cumulative incidence of all-cause mortality during follow-up was significantly higher in the octogenarian group compared to the younger subgroup (51.6% vs 12.8%, p<0.0001) (figure 1). As expected, the hazard of death during follow-up increased with age (unadjusted HR 1.069 per year increase (95% CI 1.064 to 1.074), p<0.0001), which persisted after adjustment for other predictors of mortality (HR of 1.059 (95% CI 1.048 to 1.071), p<0.0001). Table 1 Under 80 Over 80 p Value Gender (female) 1800 (19.6%) 474 (45.4%) <0.0001 Hypertension 3692 (42.3%) 501 (51.3%) 0.02 Hypercholesterolaemia 3708 (42.5%) 548 (56.1%) <0.0001 Previous MI 1442 (16.9%) 182 (18.7%) 0.150 Previous CABG 264 (3.0%) 46 (4.6%) 0.010 Multi vessel disease 3821 (41.8%) 562 (54.0%) <0.0001 GPIIb/IIIa 6515 (74.4%) 530 (53.8%) <0.0001 DES use 4058 (45.9%) 311 (30.9%) <0.0001 Access (radial) 2115 (23.4%) 194 (18.8%) 0.001 Procedural success 6932 (88.3%) 736 (84.7%) 0.003 Figure 1 Heart May 2013 Vol 99 Suppl S2 A27 BCS Abstracts 2013 (NHS). Protected by copyright. on January 7, 2020 at Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust http://heart.bmj.com/ Heart: first published as 10.1136/heartjnl-2013-304019.37 on 24 May 2013. Downloaded from Conclusions Octogenarians constitute an important subgroup of STEMI patients. Data from London ’s experience would suggest that primary PCI rates are increasing in this group and that despite the high long term mortality, acute/year one rates survival rates are very encouraging. https://heart.bmj.com/content/heartjnl/99/suppl_2/A27.full.pdf This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/heartjnl-2013-304019.37
    • A randomised trial of expedited transfer to a cardiac arrest centre for non-ste out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: arrest

      Patterson, Tiffany; Perkins, Gavin D.; Joseph, Jubin; Wilson, Karen; Van Dyck, Laura; Robertson, Steven; Nguyen, Hanna; McConkey, Hannah; Whitbread, Mark; Fothergill, Rachael; et al. (2018-01)
      Background Wide variation exists in inter-hospital survival from OHCA. Regionalisation of care into cardiac arrest centres (CAC) may improve this. We report a pilot randomised trial of expedited transfer to a CAC following OHCA without ST-elevation. The objective was to assess the feasibility of performing a large-scale RCT. Methods Adult witnessed VF OHCA of presumed cardiac cause were randomised 1:1 to either: (1) intervention: expedited transfer to a CAC for goal-directed therapy including access to immediate reperfusion, or (2) control: current standard of care involving delivery to the geographically closest hospital. The feasibility of randomisation, protocol adherence and data collection of the primary (30 day all-cause mortality) and secondary (cerebral performance category (CPC)) and in-hospital major cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) clinical outcome measures were assessed. Results Between Nov 2014 and April 2016, 118 cases were screened, of which 63 patients (53%) met eligibility criteria and 40 of the 63 patients (63%) were randomised. There were no protocol deviations in the treatment arm. Data collection of primary and secondary outcomes was achieved in 83%. There was no difference in baseline characteristics between the groups: 30 day mortality (Int 9/18, 50% vs Control 6/15, 40%; p=0.73), CPC 1/2 (Int: 9/18, 50% vs Control 7/14, 50%; p>0.99) or MACCE (Int: 9/18, 50% vs Control 6/15, 40%; p=0.73). Conclusions These findings support the feasibility of conducting a large-scale RCT to address a remaining uncertainty in post-arrest care. https://heart.bmj.com/content/104/Suppl_1/A7.2 This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/heartjnl-2018-BCIS.13
    • Safety and efficacy of paramedic treatment of regular supraventricular tachycardia: a randomised controlled trial

      Honarbakhsh, S.; Baker, Victoria; Kirkby, C.; Patel, K.; Robinson, G.; Antoniou, Sotiris; Richmond, L.; Ullah, W.; Hunter, R.J.; Finlay, M.; et al. (2017-09)
      Introduction Supraventricular tachycardias (SVTs) are a common cause of acute hospital presentations. Adenosine is an effective treatment. To date, no studies have directly compared paramedic-with hospital-delivered treatment of acute SVT with adenosine. Method Randomised controlled trial comparing the treatment of SVT and discharge by paramedics with conventional emergency department (ED)-based care. Patients were excluded if they had structural heart disease or contraindication to adenosine. Discharge time, follow-up management, costs and patient satisfaction were compared. Results Eighty-six patients were enrolled: 44 were randomised to paramedic-delivered adenosine (PARA) and 42 to conventional care (ED). Of the 37 patients in the PARA group given adenosine, the tachycardia was successfully terminated in 81%. There was a 98% correlation between the paramedics’ ECG diagnosis and that of two electrophysiologists. No patients had any documented adverse events in either group. The discharge time was lower in the PARA group than in the ED group (125 min (range 55–9513) vs 222 min (range 72– 26 153); p=0.01), and this treatment strategy was more cost-effective (£282 vs £423; p=0.01). The majority of patients preferred this management approach. Being treated and discharged by paramedics did not result in the patients being less likely to receive ongoing management of their arrhythmia and cardiology follow-up. Conclusions Patients with SVT can effectively and safely be treated with adenosine delivered by trained paramedics. Implementation of paramedic-delivered acute SVT care has the potential to reduce healthcare costs without compromising patient care. https://heart.bmj.com/content/heartjnl/103/18/1413.full.pdf This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/heartjnl-2016-309968