• Identifying and overcoming barriers to automated external defibrillator use by GoodSAM volunteer first responders in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest using the Theoretical Domains Framework and Behaviour Change Wheel: a qualitative study

      Smith, Christopher M.; Griffiths, Frances; Fothergill, Rachael; Vlaev, Ivo; Perkins, Gavin (2020-03-10)
      Objectives: GoodSAM is a mobile phone app that integrates with UK ambulance services. During a 999 call, if a call handler diagnoses cardiac arrest, nearby volunteer first responders registered with the app are alerted. They can give cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and/or use a public access automated external defibrillator (AED). We aimed to identify means of increasing AED use by GoodSAM first responders. Methods: We conducted semistructured telephone interviews, using the Theoretical Domains Framework to identify and classify barriers to AED use. We analysed findings using the Capability, Opportunity, Motivation, Behaviour (COM-B) model and subsequently used the Behaviour Change Wheel to develop potential interventions to improve AED use. Setting London, UK. Participants: GoodSAM first responders alerted in the previous 7 days about a cardiac arrest. Results We conducted 30 telephone interviews in two batches in July and October 2018. A public access AED was taken to scene once, one had already been attached on scene another time and three participants took their own AEDs when responding. Most first responders felt capable and motivated to use public access AEDs but were concerned about delaying CPR if they retrieved one and frustrated when arriving after the ambulance service. They perceived lack of opportunities due to unavailable and inaccessible AEDs, particularly out of hours. We subsequently developed 13 potential interventions to increase AED use for future testing. Conclusions: GoodSAM first responders used AEDs occasionally, despite a capability and motivation to do so. Those operating volunteer first responder systems should consider our proposed interventions to improve AED use. Of particular clinical importance are: highlighting AED location and providing route/time estimates to the patient via the nearest AED. This would help single responders make appropriate decisions about AED retrieval. As AED collection may extend time to reach the patient, where there is sufficient density of potential responders, systems could send one responder to initiate CPR and another to collect an AED. https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/10/3/e034908 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ This is an open access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Unported (CC BY 4.0) license, which permits others to copy, redistribute, remix, transform and build upon this work for any purpose, provided the original work is properly cited, a link to the licence is given, and indication of whether changes were made. See: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.