• Algorithms to guide ambulance clinicians in the management of emergencies in patients with implanted rotary left ventricular assist devices

      Bowles, Christopher T.; Hards, Rachel; Wrightson, Neil; Lincoln, Paul; Kore, Shishir; Marley, Laura; Dalzell, Jonathan R.; Raj, Binu; Baker, Tracey A.; Goodwin, Diane; et al. (2017-12)
      Advances in left ventricular assist device (LVAD) therapy have resulted in increasing numbers of adult LVAD recipients in the community. However, device failure, stroke, bleeding, LVAD thrombosis and systemic infection can be life-threatening emergencies. Currently, four LVAD systems are implanted in six UK transplant centres, each of which provides device-specific information to local emergency services. This has resulted in inconsistent availability and content of information with the risks of delayed or inappropriate decision-making. In order to improve patient safety, a consortium of UK healthcare professionals with expertise in LVADs developed universally applicable prehospital emergency algorithms. Guidance was framed as closely as possible on the standard ABCDE approach to the assessment of critically ill patients. https://emj.bmj.com/content/emermed/34/12/842.full.pdf This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/emermed-2016-206172
    • Out-of-hospital resuscitation of a 3 month old boy presenting with recurrent ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest: a case report

      Kingsley, Peter; Merefield, Jonathan; Walker, Robert G.; Chapman, Fred W.; Faulkner, Mark (2021-04)
    • Prehospital use of ketamine and midazolam in an urban advanced paramedic practitioner service: a retrospective review

      Edwards, Timothy; Shaw, Joanna; Gray, Danielle; Thomson, Neil; Faulkner, Mark (2016-09)
      Background The use of ketamine and midazolam in physician-led prehospital care teams within the UK is well established. Although both agents are in use by paramedics within emergency medical systems in North America and Australasia, there is a paucity of data relating to administration by UK paramedics. Methods A panel of clinicians utilised a standardised data extraction form to review patient report forms for all cases where an Advanced Paramedic Practitioner (APP) administered ketamine or midazolam from 1st May to 30th September 2015. Reviewers assessed indications for and appropriateness of administration, and identification and management of adverse events. Results A total of 21 patients received ketamine for analgesia (n=20, 95%) or to facilitate rapid extrication (n=1, 5%). Pain scores were recorded in 18 patients (90%), the majority of whom experienced a reduction in pain post administration (n=17, 94%). No adverse events occurred following ketamine use. Midazolam was administered to a total of 80 cases. The most common indications for administration were maintenance of an advanced airway in patients with return of spontaneous circulation post cardiac arrest (n=37, 46%), management of acute behavioural disturbance (n=28, 35%) and prolonged seizures (n=15, 18%). Transient airway compromise occurred in 10% (n=8) of cases, all of which were managed appropriately. No other adverse events occurred. The administration of ketamine and midazolam was judged to be appropriate in all cases. Conclusions The use of ketamine and midazolam in the context of an urban APP service with high levels of additional education, procedural experience and selective targeting to emergency calls appears safe and effective. Further prospective studies are warranted to confirm these findings. https://emj.bmj.com/content/emermed/33/9/e8.1.full.pdf This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/emermed-2016-206139.26
    • Temporal and geographic patterns of stab injuries in young people: a retrospective cohort study from a UK major trauma centre

      Vulliamy, Paul; Faulkner, Mark; Kirkwood, Graham; West, Anita; O'Neill, Breda; Griffiths, Martin P.; Moore, Fionna; Brohi, Karim (2018-11)
      https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/8/10/e023114.long Objectives To describe the epidemiology of assaults resulting in stab injuries among young people. We hypothesised that there are specific patterns and risk factors for injury in different age groups. Design Eleven-year retrospective cohort study. Setting Urban major trauma centre in the UK. Participants 1824 patients under the age of 25 years presenting to hospital after a stab injury resulting from assault. Outcomes Incident timings and locations were obtained from ambulance service records and triangulated with prospectively collected demographic and injury characteristics recorded in our hospital trauma registry. We used geospatial mapping of individual incidents to investigate the relationships between demographic characteristics and incident timing and location. Results The majority of stabbings occurred in males from deprived communities, with a sharp increase in incidence between the ages of 14 and 18 years. With increasing age, injuries occurred progressively later in the day (r2 =0.66, p<0.01) and were less frequent within 5 km of home (r2 =0.59, p<0.01). Among children (age <16), a significant peak in injuries occurred between 16:00 and 18:00 hours, accounting for 22% (38/172) of injuries in this group compared with 11% (182/1652) of injuries in young adults. In children, stabbings occurred earlier on school days (hours from 08:00: 11.1 vs non-school day 13.7, p<0.01) and a greater proportion were within 5 km of home (90% vs non-school day 74%, p=0.02). Mapping individual incidents demonstrated that the spike in frequency in the late afternoon and early evening was attributable to incidents occurring on school days and close to home. Conclusions Age, gender and deprivation status are potent influences on the risk of violent injury in young people. Stab injuries occur in characteristic temporal and geographical patterns according to age group, with the immediate after-school period associated with a spike in incident frequency in children. This represents an opportunity for targeted prevention strategies in this population. https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/bmjopen/8/10/e023114.full.pdf This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-023114