Browsing Publications - East Midlands Ambulance Service by Subject "Systematic Review"
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What are the predictors, barriers and facilitators to effective management of acute pain in children by ambulance services? A mixed-methods systematic review protocolAbstract published with permission. Introduction: The management of pain is complex, especially in children, as age, developmental level, cognitive and communication skills and associated beliefs must be considered. Without effective pain treatment, children may suffer long-term changes in stress hormone responses and pain perception and are at risk of developing posttraumatic stress disorder. Pre-hospital analgesic treatment of injured children is suboptimal, with very few children in pain receiving analgesia. The aim of this review is to identify predictors, barriers and facilitators to effective management of acute pain in children by ambulance services. Methods: A mixed-methods approach has been adopted due to the research question lending itself to qualitative and quantitative inquiry. The segregated methodology will be used where quantitative and qualitative papers are synthesised separately, followed by mixed-methods synthesis (meta-integration). We will search from inception: MEDLINE, CINAHL and PsycINFO via EBSCOHost, EMBASE via Ovid SP, Web of Science and Scopus. The Cochrane Library, the Joanna Briggs Institute, PROSPERO, ISRCTN and ClinicalTrials.gov will be searched. We will include empirical qualitative and quantitative studies. We will exclude animal studies, reviews, audits, service evaluations, simulated studies, letters, Best Evidence Topics, case studies, self-efficacy studies, comments and abstracts. Two authors will perform full screening and selection, data extraction and quality assessment. GRADE and CERQual will determine the confidence in cumulative evidence. Discussion: If confidence in the cumulative evidence is deemed Moderate, Low or Very Low, then this review will inform the development of a novel mixed-methods sequential explanatory study which aims to comprehensively identify predictors, barriers and facilitators to effective pain management of acute pain in children within ambulance services. Future research will be discussed among authors if confidence is deemed High.