• Paramedics and medicines: legal considerations

      England, Ed (2016-08)
      Abstract published with permission. This article will cover: l The relevant legislation relating to medicines and ambulance services l The restrictions that apply to different organisations or individuals regarding the possession of medicines l Regulations on the administration and supply of medicines l Patient Group Directions and Patient Specific Directions. The law in relation to the possession of medicines, administration to patients and the supply of medicines is separate. This article also provides guidance to ambulance services and ambulance clinicians on available options to ensure good patient access to medicines in England. The laws described also apply in Scotland and Wales but there are some different national processes. The law both enables and restricts access to medicines. However, it does require interpretation and a pharmacist can help with this. Where interpretation is contentious then organisations may obtain a legal opinion. Legal opinions can also differ, and can only be resolved in court.
    • Reliability and validity of an ambulance patient reported experience measure (a-prem): pilot study

      Siriwardena, Aloysius; Togher, Fiona Jayne; Akanuwe, Joseph; Spaight, Anne (2017-10)
      Background There are no prehospital ambulance Patient Reported Experience Measures (A-PREMs) routinely used to support service comparisons and improvement. We developed an A-PREM, generating items through secondary analysis of ambulance patient interview data, and refining the instrument using expert assessment and cognitive interviews of service users. We aimed to pilot the A-PREM (48 experience and 12 attribute items) investigating user acceptability, reliability and construct validity. Methods Ambulance users attended by a UK regional ambulance service within the previous six months, excluding those suffering cardiac arrest, were sent a self-administered A-PREM. Returned questionnaires were entered into Microsoft Excel and imported into SPSS v22 for analysis. Experience items were recoded to range from 0 (don’t know/can’t remember) to 3 (best recorded experience). Descriptive analysis for item frequencies and missing values, reliability analyses for potential scales and tests of correlation and association were conducted. Results In all, 111 A-PREMs (22.2%) were returned. Missing data were highest for call-taking items. There was a significant association with a shorter wait for first response for four items measuring overall experience of call-taking (χ, p=0.05), ambulance staff (p<0.001), ambulance overall (p=0.001) and A and E (p=0.023). Four separate experience scales encompassing call taking (AmbCallScore, α=0.91), care at scene (AmbCareScore, α=0.90), care on leaving the patient (AmbLeaveScore, α=0.69), and care on transport (AmbTranScore α=0.71), showed satisfactory to high internal consistencies and distributions indicating generally positive experiences. AmbCallScore, AmbCareScore and AmbLeaveScore showed significantly higher scores (ANOVA) with shorter wait to first response. There were no significant differences for overall measures or scales by sex or age of participant, whether they were transported to hospital or not and whether it was their first experience of the ambulance service. Conclusion Our findings show that the A-PREM should be tested more widely for evidence of reliability, validity and sensitivity to different care and settings. https://emj.bmj.com/content/34/10/e6.2 This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/emermed-2017-207114.17