• Exploratory study of factors associated with adverse clinical features in patients presenting with non-fatal drug overdose/self-poisoning to the ambulance service

      Gwini, Stella M.; Shaw, Deborah; Iqbal, Mohammad; Spaight, Anne; Siriwardena, Aloysius (2011-10)
      AIM: To investigate the factors associated with adverse clinical features presented by drug overdose/self-poisoning patients and the treatments provided. METHODS: Historical patient records collected over 3 months from ambulance crews attending non-fatal overdoses/self-poisoning incidents were reviewed. Logistic regression was used to investigate predictors of adverse clinical features (reduced consciousness, obstructed airway, hypotension or bradycardia, hypoglycaemia) and treatment. RESULTS: Of 22,728 calls attended to over 3 months, 585 (rate 26/1000 calls) were classified as overdose or self-poisoning. In the 585 patients identified, paracetamol-containing drugs were most commonly involved (31.5%). At least one adverse clinical feature occurred in 103 (17.7%) patients, with higher odds in men and opiate overdose or illegal drugs. Older patients and patients with reduced consciousness were more likely to receive oxygen. The latter also had a greater chance of receiving saline. CONCLUSION: Non-fatal overdose/self-poisoning accounted for 2.6% of patients attended by an ambulance. Gender, illegal drugs or opiates were important predictors of adverse clinical features. The treatments most often provided to patients were oxygen and saline. https://emj.bmj.com/content/emermed/28/10/892.full.pdf This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/emj.2009.086140
    • Factors associated with adverse clinical features in patients presenting with non-fatal self-poisoning

      Gwini, Stella; Shaw, Deborah; Mohammad, Iqbal; Spaight, Anne; Siriwardena, Aloysius (2011-03)
      Background Drug overdose or self poisoning is an important reason for an ambulance service response. We aimed to undertake a preliminary investigation into the pattern of drug overdose presenting to one ambulance service and factors associated with adverse clinical features and treatment. Methods We examined data from clinical records obtained by ambulance crews attending non-fatal overdoses over 3 months. We produced descriptive statistics and used logistic regression to investigate predictors of adverse clinical features (reduced consciousness, obstructed airway, hypotensive and hypoglycaemia) and treatment. Results A total of 585 patients were identified over 3 months, giving a rate of 26 per 1000 ambulance requests. Paracetamol containing drugs were most commonly involved. About 8% of patients had taken an overdose of an illegal drug. Adverse clinical reactions occurred in 103 (17.7%) of patients. The odds of any adverse clinical feature was higher in men (OR 2.04; 95% CI 1.18 to 3.51) and overdose involving an opiate (OR 2.35; 95% CI 1.16 to 4.93) or an illegal drug (OR 2.51; 95% CI 1.05 to 5.96). The older the patient, the more likely they were to receive oxygen (OR 1.03; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.04). Patients with reduced consciousness also had a greater chance of receiving oxygen (OR 2.89; 95% CI 1.45 to 5.77) and/or saline (OR 8.00; 95% CI 3.32 to 19.28). Conclusion Non-fatal overdose or self poisoning accounts for 2.6% of patients attended by an ambulance. Gender, illegal or opioid containing drugs were important predictors of adverse clinical features. The treatments most often provided to patients were oxygen and saline. This provides an incite into the burden of overdose/poisoning as well as serve as a pilot for future research aimed at improving early management of overdose and poisoning. https://emj.bmj.com/content/emermed/28/3/e1.5.full.pdf This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/emj.2010.108605.13