• Ambulances attending diabetes-related emergencies in care homes – cross sectional database study

      Siriwardena, Aloysius; Law, Graham; Smith, M.D.; Iqbal, Mohammad; Phung, Viet-Hai; Spaight, Anne; Brewster, Amanda; Mountain, P.; Spurr, K.; Ray, M.; et al. (2019-04-26)
      Background Diabetes, affecting 1 in 5 care home residents, may lead to ambulance call-outs and hospitalisation. We aimed to investigate the epidemiology of diabetes-related emergencies involving ambulance attendances to care home residents. Method Cross-sectional design investigating ambulance attendance to people presenting with diabetes-related emergencies in the East Midlands, UK, between 2012 and 2017. We analysed dispatch and ambulance clinical data with care home data, including call category, timing, location, care home type, clinical or physiological measures, treatments, conveyance (transport to hospital) and costs. Results Overall 2 19 722 (6.7% of 3.3 million) ambulances attended care homes over 6 years, with 12 080 (5.5%) to diabetes-related emergencies. Of 3152 care home patients categorised as having a ‘diabetic problem’, 1957 (62.1%) were conveyed to hospital, similar to that for community residents taking into account other factors. Factors associated with conveyance included reduced consciousness (OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.87–0.95), elevated heart (1.01, 1.01–1.02) or respiratory rate (1.08, 1.06–1.10), no treatment for hypoglycaemia (0.54, 0.34–0.86) or additional medical (but not psychiatric) problems. Ambulance costs were significantly lower when a patient was conveyed, by some £18 (95% CI £11.94–£24.12), but this would be outweighed by downstream hospital care costs. For a simulation in which all trusts’ mean NHS Reference Costs were used, conveyance was no longer significant in the cost model. Conclusion Conveyance following diabetes-related emergencies was as common for care home as for other community residents despite access to trained staff, and more likely with impaired consciousness, abnormal physiological measures or lack of treatment for hypoglycaemia. Conflict of interest None. Funding National institute for Health Research Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care East Midlands, UK., https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/9/Suppl_2/A11.2. This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2019-EMS.30
    • Audit of morphine administration by East Midlands Ambulance Service (EMAS)

      Winter, S.; Jootun, R. (2017-05)
      Aim For pre-hospital administration of morphine, JRCALC guidelines recommend recorded pain scores (PS) out of ten before and after use, an anti-emetic adjunct and ENTONOX provision prior to analgesic effect. This audit aimed to gain insight into how rigorously these guidelines were being adhered to in practice Methods This clinical audit examined patients who had been administered morphine by EMAS staff. Inclusion criteria were patients who had received documented oral, intravenous or intramuscular morphine within a three-month period. Those who declined morphine were excluded. Data extracted from the patient report forms included: patient demographics; documented PSs; morphine doses and routes; adjunct analgesics and use of anti-emetics. This information was used to determine how appropriately PSs, analgesic adjuncts and antiemetics were being used alongside morphine. Results There were 293 patients included in the audit. 205 (70.0%) had a PS documented before and after morphine administration; 50 (17.1%) had one documented PS and 38 (13.0%) had none. 58 (19.8%) patients received ENTONOX before the administration of morphine and 17 (5.8%) received it after morphine. 218 (74.4%) had no record of ENTONOX administration and only 100 (34.1%) patients were prescribed an anti-emetic with morphine. Conclusion There is potential for improved adherence to JRCALC guidelines through increased awareness and education. We will trial this at EMAS through staff notices followed by a re-audit in 4–6 months. Ideally, audits within other ambulance services with more patients would be undertaken for widespread quality improvement. https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/bmjopen/7/Suppl_3/A3.3.full.pdf This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2017-EMSabstracts.9
    • Data quality and 30-day survival for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in the UK out-of-hospital cardiac arrest registry: a data linkage study

      Rajagopal, Sangeerthana; Booth, Scott; Brown, Terry P.; Ji, Chen; Hawkes, Claire A.; Siriwardena, Aloysius; Kirby, Kim; Black, Sarah; Spaight, Robert; Gunson, Imogen; et al. (2017-11)
      Objectives The Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Outcomes (OHCAO) project aims to understand the epidemiology and outcomes of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) across the UK. This data linkage study is a subproject of OHCAO. The aim was to establish the feasibility of linking OHCAO data to National Health Service (NHS) patient demographic data and Office for National Statistics (ONS) date of death data held on the NHS Personal Demographics Service (PDS) database to improve OHCAO demographic data quality and enable analysis of 30-day survival from OHCA. Design and setting Data were collected from 1 January 2014 to 31 December 2014 as part of a prospective, observational study of OHCA attended by 10 English NHS Ambulance Services. 28 729 OHCA cases had resuscitation attempted by Emergency Medical Services and were included in the study. Data linkage was carried out using a data linkage service provided by NHS Digital, a national provider of health-related data. To assess data linkage feasibility a random sample of 3120 cases was selected. The sample was securely transferred to NHS Digital to be matched using OHCAO patient demographic data to return previously missing demographic data and provide ONS date of death data. Results A total of 2513 (80.5%) OHCAO cases were matched to patients in the NHS PDS database. Using the linkage process, missing demographic data were retrieved for 1636 (72.7%) out of 2249 OHCAO cases that had previously incomplete demographic data. Returned ONS date of death data allowed analysis of 30-day survival status. The results showed a 30-day survival rate of 9.3%, reducing unknown survival status from 46.1% to 8.5%. Conclusions In this sample, data linkage between the OHCAO registry and NHS PDS database was shown to be feasible, improving demographic data quality and allowing analysis of 30-day survival status. https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/bmjopen/7/11/e017784.full.pdf This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2017-017784
    • The digital ambulance: electronic patient clinical records in prehospital emergency care

      Porter, Alison; Potts, H.; Mason, Suzanne; Morgan, H.; Morrison, Z.; Rees, Nigel; Shaw, Deborah; Siriwardena, Aloysius; Snooks, Helen; Williams, V. (2018-04)
      Aim Electronic Records in Ambulances (ERA) is a two-year study examining the opportunities and challenges of prehospital implementation of electronic patient clinical records (ePCR) in the UK. National policy encourages digitisation of health services,1 but this transition may not be straightforward.2 Method A telephone survey of progress implementing ePCR in all 13 UK ambulance services explored systems, implementation processes, perceived value and future plans. Interviews with information managers were thematically analysed. Case studies in four UK ambulance services involved observing clinical work, focus groups with ambulance clinicians, interviews with key stakeholders and analysis of routine data. Results Baseline survey: 7/13 services were using ePCR, with mixed compliance from staff. Reported benefits concerned improved data access for audit. Of the 6/13 services currently using paper records, four had previously adopted ePCR, but reverted. Case studies: Initial findings suggest some common themes: . Constant change: 3/4 services were already undertaking or considering transition to a second generation system; 1/4 was undertaking a phased rollout of ePCR. . Digital diversity: no standard hardware or software in use. . Indirect input: patient data was still sometimes transferred to the ePCR from another source (eg writing on a glove) or entered retrospectively. . Data dump: ePCRs acted mainly as a store, rather than transferring information to other care providers or supporting decision making. Conclusion Although ePCRs offer opportunities to support prehospital care, the transition to the new technology is neither linear nor co-ordinated, with full benefits not yet realised in terms of integration and data sharing. https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/8/Suppl_1/A26.3 This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-EMS.70
    • Preventable mortality in patients at low risk of death requiring prehospital ambulance care: retrospective case record review study

      Siriwardena, Aloysius; Akanuwe, Joseph; Crum, Annabel; Coster, Joanne; Jacques, Richard; Turner, Janette (2018-04)
      Aim Retrospective case record reviews (RCRR) have been widely used to assess quality of care but evidence for their use in prehospital ambulance settings is limited. We aimed to review case records of potentially avoidable deaths related to ambulance care. Method We identified patients who were transported to hospital or died using linked ambulance-hospital-mortality data from one UK ambulance service over 6 months in 2013. Death rates (within 3 days) for patient groups (based on age, dispatch code and urgency) were determined; 3 patients calling in-hours and 3 outof-hours were selected from categories with the lowest death rates. Five reviewers (GP, nurse, 2 paramedics and medical health service manager) assessed anonymised patient records for quality of care and avoidable mortality. Results We selected 29 linked records from 1 50 003 focussing on patients not transported to distinguish pre-hospital from Abstracts BMJ Open 2018;8(Suppl 1):A1–A34 A7 Trust (NHS). Protected by copyright. on 13 August 2019 at Manchester University NHS Foundation http://bmjopen.bmj.com/ BMJ Open: first published as 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-EMS.20 on 16 April 2018. Downloaded from hospital causes. Overall 8 cases out of 29 (27.6%) scored between 2.4 and 2.8 (1=Definitely avoidable, 2=Strong evidence of avoidability), 8 cases (27.6%) scored between 3.0 and 4.6 (3=Probably avoidable, 4=Possibly avoidable), and the remaining 13 cases (44.8%) between 4.0 and 5.8 (5=Slightly avoidable or 6=Definitely not avoidable). Variation between raters was satisfactory with ICC 0.84 (95% CI: 0.73 to 0.92). Common themes among cases with strong evidence of avoidability were symptoms or physical findings indicating a potentially serious condition and refusal by patients or their carers to be transported to hospital. RCRRs require linked ambulance, hospital and mortality data to ensure accurate assessment in light of the diagnosis and cause of death. Conclusion Retrospective case record reviews (RCRR) have been widely used to assess quality of care but evidence for their use in prehospital ambulance settings is limited. We aimed to review case records of potentially avoidable deaths related to ambulance care. https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/8/Suppl_1/A7.3 This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-EMS.20