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dc.contributor.authorChippendale, Jonathan
dc.contributor.authorLloyd, Adele
dc.contributor.authorPayne, Tanya
dc.contributor.authorDunmore, Sally
dc.contributor.authorStoddart, Bethan
dc.date.accessioned2019-09-12T12:10:24Z
dc.date.available2019-09-12T12:10:24Z
dc.date.issued2018-03
dc.identifier.citationChippendale, J. et al, 2018. The feasibility of paramedics delivering antibiotic treatment pre-hospital to ‘red flag’ sepsis patients: a service evaluation. British Paramedic Journal, 2 (4), 19-24.en_US
dc.identifier.issn1478-4726
dc.identifier.doi10.29045/14784726.2018.03.2.4.19
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12417/186
dc.description.abstractAbstract published with permission. Background: Sepsis is associated with a 36% mortality rate, rising to 50% for septic shock. Currently, when an East Midlands Ambulance Service clinician recognises ‘red flag’ sepsis, only the oxygen and fluid elements of the ‘Sepsis Six’ care bundle are delivered, omitting the antibiotic therapy. For a patient in septic shock, every hour’s delay in antibiotic therapy is associated with a 7.6% increase in mortality. Ambulance clinicians are therefore appropriately placed to assess and commence treatment at the earliest point of recognition. The aim of this evaluation was to assess the feasibility of training paramedics to recognise ‘red flag’ sepsis, obtain blood cultures and administer a broad spectrum antibiotic, meropenem, to patients in the pre-hospital environment. Methods: A prospective six-month feasibility pilot evaluation was conducted in May 2016. Paramedics were trained and given access to a broad spectrum antibiotic, meropenem, along with a patient group direction to administer the antibiotic to ‘red flag’ sepsis patients. Training included sepsis recognition, taking of blood cultures and patient group direction compliance. Results: Twenty paramedics volunteered and successfully completed the training. Of the 113 patients that were identified as ‘red flag’ sepsis, 107 (94.6%) were confirmed as infected by the receiving hospital. Ninety-eight blood samples were successfully drawn by study paramedics, with only seven (7.1%) reported as contaminated samples, compared with 8.5% of samples taken by staff in the receiving ED during the same time period. Ninety patients (80%) assessed by paramedics as meeting the criteria were treated with meropenem, and patient group direction compliance was 100%. Conclusion: Paramedics can safely deliver pre-hospital antibiotics to patients with ‘red flag’ sepsis and obtain blood cultures prior to administration, with a contamination rate comparable with local hospitals, following a short training course.
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.subjectEmergency Medical Servicesen_US
dc.subjectBacteraemiaen_US
dc.subjectSepsisen_US
dc.subjectAmbulancesen_US
dc.subjectParamedicsen_US
dc.titleThe feasibility of paramedics delivering antibiotic treatment pre-hospital to ‘red flag’ sepsis patients: a service evaluationen_US
dc.source.journaltitleBritish Paramedic Journalen_US
dcterms.dateAccepted2019-07-18
rioxxterms.versionNAen_US
rioxxterms.licenseref.urihttp://www.rioxx.net/licenses/all-rights-reserveden_US
rioxxterms.licenseref.startdate2019-07-18
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Reviewen_US
refterms.panelUnspecifieden_US
refterms.dateFirstOnline2018-03
html.description.abstractAbstract published with permission. Background: Sepsis is associated with a 36% mortality rate, rising to 50% for septic shock. Currently, when an East Midlands Ambulance Service clinician recognises ‘red flag’ sepsis, only the oxygen and fluid elements of the ‘Sepsis Six’ care bundle are delivered, omitting the antibiotic therapy. For a patient in septic shock, every hour’s delay in antibiotic therapy is associated with a 7.6% increase in mortality. Ambulance clinicians are therefore appropriately placed to assess and commence treatment at the earliest point of recognition. The aim of this evaluation was to assess the feasibility of training paramedics to recognise ‘red flag’ sepsis, obtain blood cultures and administer a broad spectrum antibiotic, meropenem, to patients in the pre-hospital environment. Methods: A prospective six-month feasibility pilot evaluation was conducted in May 2016. Paramedics were trained and given access to a broad spectrum antibiotic, meropenem, along with a patient group direction to administer the antibiotic to ‘red flag’ sepsis patients. Training included sepsis recognition, taking of blood cultures and patient group direction compliance. Results: Twenty paramedics volunteered and successfully completed the training. Of the 113 patients that were identified as ‘red flag’ sepsis, 107 (94.6%) were confirmed as infected by the receiving hospital. Ninety-eight blood samples were successfully drawn by study paramedics, with only seven (7.1%) reported as contaminated samples, compared with 8.5% of samples taken by staff in the receiving ED during the same time period. Ninety patients (80%) assessed by paramedics as meeting the criteria were treated with meropenem, and patient group direction compliance was 100%. Conclusion: Paramedics can safely deliver pre-hospital antibiotics to patients with ‘red flag’ sepsis and obtain blood cultures prior to administration, with a contamination rate comparable with local hospitals, following a short training course.en_US


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