• Paramedic perceptions of the feasibility and practicalities of prehospital clinical trials: a questionnaire survey

      Hargreaves, Kate; Goodacre, Steve; Mortimer, Peter (2014-06)
      Background Clinical trials are required to strengthen the evidence base for prehospital care. This questionnaire study aimed to explore paramedics’ perceptions of prehospital research and barriers to conducting prehospital clinical trials. Methods A self-completed questionnaire was developed to explore paramedic perceptions and barriers to undertaking prehospital trials based upon a review of existing research and semistructured qualitative interviews with five paramedics. The questionnaire was distributed by ‘research champions’ to 300 paramedics at randomly selected ambulance stations in Yorkshire. Results Responses were received from 96/300 participants (32%). Interest in clinical trials was reported, but barriers were recognised, including perceptions of poor knowledge and limited use of evidence, that conducting research is not a paramedics’ responsibility, limited support for involvement in trials, concerns about the practicalities of randomisation and consent, and time pressures. No association was found between training route and perceived understanding of trials (p=0.263) or feeling that involvement in trials was a professional responsibility (p=0.838). Previous involvement in prehospital research was not associated with opinions on importance of an evidence base (p=0.934) or gaining consent (p=0.329). The number of years respondents had been practicing was not associated with opinions on personal experience versus scientific evidence (p=0.582) or willingness to receive training for clinical trials (p=0.111). However, the low response rate limited the power of the study to detect potential associations. Conclusions Paramedics reported interest and understanding of research, but a number of practical and ethical barriers were recognised that need to be addressed if prehospital clinical trials are to increase. https://emj.bmj.com/content/emermed/31/6/499.full.pdf This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/emermed-2013-202346
    • Perceived areas for future intervention and research addressing conveyance decisions and potential threats to patient safety: stakeholder workshops

      O'Hara, Rachel; Johnson, Maxine; Hirst, Enid; Weyman, Andrew; Shaw, Deborah; Mortimer, Peter; Newman, Chris; Storey, Matthew; Turner, Janette; Mason, Suzanne; et al. (2016-09)
      Background As part of a study examining systemic influences on conveyance decisions by paramedics and potential threats to patient safety, stakeholder workshops were conducted with three Ambulance Service Trusts in England. The study identified seven overarching systemic influences: demand; priorities; access to care; risk tolerance; training, communication and resources. The aim of the workshops was to elicit feedback on the findings and identify perceived areas for future intervention and research. Attendees were also asked to rank the seven threats to patient safety in terms of their perceived importance for future attention. Methods A total of 45 individuals attended across all the workshops, 28 ambulance service staff and 17 service user representatives. Discussions were audio-recorded, transcribed and thematically analysed. A paper based paired comparison approach was used to produce an ordinal ranking to illustrate the relative prioritisation of issues. Analysis included testing for internal consistency and between-rater agreement for this relatively small sample. Findings The two highest ranking priorities were training and development, as well as access to care. The areas for intervention identified represent what attendees perceived as feasible to undertake and relate to: care options; cross boundary working; managing demand; staff development; information and feedback; and commissioning decisions. Perceived areas for research specifically address conveyance decisions and potential threats to patient safety. 17 areas for research were proposed that directly relate to six of the systemic threats to patient safety. Conclusions Feedback workshops were effective in the validation of findings as well as providing an opportunity to identify priorities for future interventions and research. They also facilitated discussion between a variety of Ambulance Service staff and service user representatives. Ongoing collaboration between members of the research team has enabled some of the research recommendations to be explored as part of a mutually agreed research agenda. https://emj.bmj.com/content/emermed/33/9/e7.3.full.pdf This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/emermed-2016-206139.25
    • Pilot evaluation of utilising mental health nurses in the management of ambulance service patients with mental health problems

      Irving, Andy; O'Hara, Rachel; Johnson, Maxine; Harris, Angela; Baker, Kieran (2016-09)
      Background The urgent and emergency care review advocates new models of care to provide safer, faster and better care. Available evidence highlights scope for improvement in the delivery of care for patients calling 999 with mental health problems. The purpose of this abstract is to describe an ongoing initiative in Yorkshire Ambulance Service utilising specialist triage by mental health nurses in the Emergency Operations Centre (EOC) since December 2014. Methods An exploratory mixed methods evaluation was conducted. Interviews (n=12) with key stakeholders in the ambulance service were conducted to explore their experiences of service provision for patients with mental health problems and the impact of introducing Mental Health Nurse triage in the EOC. Interview data was coded and thematically analysed to identify key issues around service delivery for patients with mental health problems. Routine data from ambulance service computer aided dispatch was used to examine impact on patient care and resource allocation. Results Initial findings indicate that access to mental health nurses in the EOC reduced the ambulance response rate by clinically triaging calls for patients with mental health problems and only sending a resource where appropriate. Staff interviews revealed the developmental process and challenges involved in implementing the mental health triage initiative, for example, recruitment, training and governance. Staff perceptions of the initial positive impact of the mental health nurses include the delivery of more appropriate patient care and reduced anxiety for staff managing calls that now have access to specialist support. Conclusions Despite the relatively short time period since the inception of this initiative, the preliminary findings from this pilot evaluation suggest a positive impact on service delivery from a patient and organisational perspective. Lessons learned from the implementation of this initiative and its progression are potentially informative for other Ambulance Service Trusts considering adopting a similar approach. https://emj.bmj.com/content/emermed/33/9/677.2.full.pdf This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/emermed-2016-206139.2
    • The recognition of STEMI by paramedics and the Effect of Computer inTerpretation (RESPECT): a randomised crossover feasibility study

      Pilbery, Richard; Teare, M. Dawn; Goodacre, Steve; Morris, Francis (2016-07)
      Background The appropriate management of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) depends on accurate interpretation of the 12-lead ECG by paramedics. Computer interpretation messages on ECGs are often provided, but the effect they exert on paramedics’ decision-making is not known. The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of using an online assessment tool, and collect pilot data, for a definitive trial to determine the effect of computer interpretation messages on paramedics’ diagnosis of STEMI. Methods The Recognition of STEMI by Paramedics and the Effect of Computer inTerpretation (RESPECT) feasibility study was a randomised crossover trial using a bespoke, web-based assessment tool. Participants were randomly allocated 12 of 48 ECGs, with an equal mix of correct and incorrect computer interpretation messages, and STEMI and STEMI-mimics. The nature of the responses required a cross-classified multi-level model. Results 254 paramedics consented into the study, 205 completing the first phase and 150 completing phase two. The adjusted OR for a correct paramedic interpretation, when the computer interpretation was correct (true positive for STEMI or true negative for STEMI-mimic), was 1.80 (95% CI 0.84 to 4.91) and 0.58 (95% CI 0.41 to 0.81) when the computer interpretation was incorrect (false positive for STEMI or false negative for STEMI-mimic). The intraclass correlation coefficient for correct computer interpretations was 0.33 for participants and 0.17 for ECGs, and for incorrect computer interpretations, 0.06 for participants and 0.01 for ECGs. Conclusions Determining the effect of computer interpretation messages using a web-based assessment tool is feasible, but the design needs to take clustered data into account. Pilot data suggest that computer messages influence paramedic interpretation, improving accuracy when correct and worsening accuracy when incorrect. https://emj.bmj.com/content/emermed/33/7/471.full.pdf This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/emermed-2015-204988
    • Relationship between hospital characteristics and survival outcomes in out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients treated and transported by Yorkshire Ambulance Service (YAS)

      Platt, Anthony (2019-09-24)
      Background There is mounting evidence that post resuscitation care, should include early angiography and primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) in OHCA where a cardiac cause is suspected. In Yorkshire, the ambulance service can transport patients with a return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), directly to a regional PPCI unit, if their ECG shows ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and the PPCI units accept. The aim of this study was to evaluate transport decisions, hospital characteristics and outcome in the form of 30 day survival rates of post-ROSC patients with presumed cardiac aetiology. Methods OHCA patient care records (PCRs) between January and July 2017 were reviewed. Patients were eligible for inclusion if they were: an adult non-traumatic OHCA: achieved ROSC on scene, and were transported to hospital. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data. Results 478 patients met the inclusion criteria. 361/478 (75.6%) patients had an ECG recorded, with 149/361 (41.3%) documented cases of STEMI and 88/149 (59.1%) referred to a PPCI unit. 40/88 (45.5%) of referrals made were accepted by PPCI. Patients taken directly to PPCI were most likely to survive to 30 days (25/39, 53.8%). 34/126 (27.0%) patients survived to 30 days after transport to an emergency department (ED) at a PPCI- capable hospital, and 50/310 (16.1%) survived if taken to ED at a non-PPCI capable hospital. Conclusion Work is required to ensure post-ROSC patients receive a 12 lead ECG, and those with STEMI are referred to PPCI, as survival was greatest in this group. 30 day survival was better for patients taken to ED at a hospital with PPCI facilities, than an ED at a general hospital. Discussion needs to take place between YAS and the relevant hospitals in the region to ensure patients are transported to the appropriate destination., https://emj.bmj.com/content/36/10/e6.1 This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/emermed-2019-999abs.11
    • Time: take-home naloxone in multicentre emergency settings: protocol for a feasibility study

      Jones, Matthew; Snooks, Helen; Bulger, Jenna; Watkins, Alan; Moore, Chris; Edwards, Adrian; Evans, Birdie A.; Fuller, Gordon; John, Ann; Benger, Jonathan; et al. (2019-01-14)
      Background Opioids such as heroin kill more people worldwide than any other drug. Death rates associated with opioid poisoning in the UK are at record levels. Naloxone is an opioid agonist which can be distributed in take home ‘kits’. This intervention is known as Take Home Naloxone (THN). Methods We propose to carry out a randomised controlled feasibility trial (RCT) of THN distributed in emergency settings clustered by Emergency Department (ED) catchment area, and local ambulance service; with anonymised linked data outcomes. This will include distribution of THN by paramedics and ED staff to patients at risk of opioid overdose. Existing linked data will be used to develop a discriminant function to retrospectively identify people at high risk of overdose death based on observable predictors of overdose to include in outcome follow up. Results We will gather outcomes up to one year including; deaths (and drug related); emergency admissions; intensive care admissions; ED attendances (and overdose related); 999 attendances (and for overdose); THN kits issued; and NHS resource usage. We will agree progression criteria following consultation with research team members related to sign up of sites; successful identification and provision of THN to eligible participants; successful follow up of eligible participants and opioid decedents; adverse event rate; successful data matching and data linkage; and retrieval of outcomes within three months of projected timeline. Conclusions THN programmes are currently run by some drug services in the UK. However, saturation is low. There has been a lack of experimental research in to THN, and so questions remain: Does THN reduce deaths? Are there unforeseen harms associated with THN? Is THN cost effective? This feasibility study will establish whether a fully powered cluster RCT can be used to answer these questions. https://emj.bmj.com/content/36/1/e10.1. This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/emermed-2019-999.24