• UK ambulance service resuscitation management of pulseless electrical activity: a systematic review protocol of text and opinion

      Coppola, Alison; Black, Sarah; Johnston, Sasha; Endacott, Ruth (2020-06-01)
      Abstract published with permission. Background: Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients with pulseless electrical activity are treated by paramedics using basic and advanced life support resuscitation. When resuscitation fails to achieve return of spontaneous circulation, there are limited evidence and national guidelines on when to continue or stop resuscitation. This has led to ambulance services in the United Kingdom developing local guidelines to support paramedics in the resuscitative management of pulseless electrical activity. The content of each guideline is unknown, as is any association between guideline implementation and patient survival. We aim to identify and synthesise local ambulance service guidelines to help improve the consistency of paramedic-led decision-making for the resuscitation of pulseless electrical activity in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Methods: A systematic review of text and opinion will be conducted on ambulance service guidelines for resuscitating adult cardiac arrest patients with pulseless electrical activity. Data will be gathered direct from the ambulance service website. The review will be guided by the methods of the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI). The search strategy will be conducted in three stages: 1) a website search of the 14 ambulance services; 2) a search of the evidence listed in support of the guideline; and 3) an examination of the reference list of documents found in the first and second stages and reported using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses. Each document will be assessed against the inclusion criteria, and quality of evidence will be assessed using the JBI Critical Appraisal Checklist for Text and Opinion. Data will be extracted using the JBI methods of textual data extraction and a three-stage data synthesis process: 1) extraction of opinion statements; 2) categorisation of statements according to similarity of meaning; and 3) meta-synthesis of statements to create a new collection of findings. Confidence of findings will be assessed using the graded ConQual approach.
    • Variation in ambulance call rates for care homes in Torbay, UK

      Hancock, Jason; Matthews, Justin; Ukoumunne, Obioha C.; Lang, Iain; Somerfield, David; Wenman, James; Dickens, Chris (2017-05)
    • What happened on Restart a Heart Day 2017 in England?

      Brown, Terry P.; Perkins, Gavin D.; Lockey, Andrew S.; Soar, Jasmeet; Askew, Sara; Mersom, Frank; Fothergill, Rachael; Cox, Emma; Black, Sarah; Lumley-Holmes, Jenny (2018-09)
    • What out-of-hours antibiotic prescribing practices are contributing to antibiotic resistance: a literature review

      Hart, Jasmine; Phillips, Peter (2020-03-01)
      Abstract published with permission. Background: Overuse of antibiotics and inappropriate prescribing has resulted in a rapid increase in the rate of antibiotic resistance, with poorer patient outcomes and increased health costs. In the out-of-hours setting, a high proportion of antibiotics are prescribed and practices need to improve to reduce antibiotic resistance. Purpose: To identify antibiotic prescribing practices in European out-of-hours primary care services that are contributing to antibiotic resistance. Design: The review was conducted in alignment with the PRISMA statement (Moher, Liberati, Tetzlaff, Altman, & PRISMA Group, 2009). Methods: A literature search was performed using MySearch to identify European literature. The search was focused on antibiotic/antimicrobial prescribing in an out-of-hours environment, and any reports that described factors correlating with the nature of prescribing practices were examined. Results: The literature search located 91 articles, out of which seven met the inclusion criteria. Two articles described clinicians’ experiences in antibiotic prescribing in out-of-hours, two compared in-office and after-hours prescribing, two described prescribing patterns in out-of-hours and one examined prescribing in children. Four main themes were identified: antibiotics prescribed and conditions associated with prescribing; consultation time; the day of consultation; and parental opinion. Conclusion: Overprescribing to self-limiting conditions, prescribing of broad-spectrum antibiotics, time constraints, safeguarding issues and poor communication are all contributing to inappropriate antibiotic prescribing. Further research is needed relating to whether clinicians are adhering to antibiotic guidelines and to explore patients’ experiences and expectations from the out-of-hours practitioners with respect to antibiotic prescribing.
    • Who receives bystander CPR in a witnessed out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in England

      Brown, Terry P.; Booth, Scott; Hawkes, Claire A.; Fothergill, Rachael; Black, Sarah; Pocock, Helen; Gunson, Imogen; Soar, Jasmeet; Mark, Julian; Perkins, Gavin D. (2018-09)