A specialist, second-tier response to out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: setting up TOPCAT2
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KeywordEmergency Medical Services
Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest (OHCA)
Journal titleEmergency Medicine Journal
MetadataShow full item record
AbstractBackground: Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is the most common, immediately life-threatening, medical emergency faced by ambulance crews. Survival from OHCA is largely dependent on quality of prehospital resuscitation. Non-technical skills, including resuscitation team leadership, communication and clinical decision-making are important in providing high quality prehospital resuscitation. We describe a pilot study (TOPCAT2, TC2) to establish a second tier, expert paramedic response to OHCA in Edinburgh, Scotland. Methods: Eight paramedics were selected to undergo advanced training in resuscitation and non-technical skills. Simulation and video feedback was used during training. The designated TC2 paramedic manned a regular ambulance service response car and attended emergency calls in the usual manner. Emergency medical dispatch centre dispatchers were instructed to call the TC2 paramedic directly on receipt of a possible OHCA call. Call and dispatch timings, quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation and return-of-spontaneous circulation were all measured prospectively. Results: Establishing a specialist, second-tier paramedic response was feasible. There was no overall impact on ambulance response times. From the first 40 activations, the TC2 paramedic was activated in a median of 3.2 min (IQR 1.6-5.8) and on-scene in a median of 10.8 min (8.0-17.9). Bimonthly team debrief, case review and training sessions were successfully established. OHCA attended by TC2 showed an additional trend towards improved outcome with a rate of return of spontaneous circulation of 22.5%, compared with a national average of 16%. Conclusions: Establishing a specialist, second-tier response to OHCA is feasible, without impacting on overall ambulance response times. Improving non-technical skills, including prehospital resuscitation team leadership, has the potential to save lives and further research on the impact of the TOPCAT2 pilot programme is warranted. https://emj.bmj.com/content/31/5/405.info. This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/emermed-2012-202232